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BREEDS OF CATTLE IN THE UNITED STATES.                             231

Cow Echo. No. 121. H. H. B.

Cattle.—There are two principal purposes
for which cattle are bred and used here: for
beef and for dairy products. The number in
use as working animals is so small as to be
negligible. The two main classes are sub­
divided by the census into dairy cows; other
cows, heifers, steers and bulls and calves.
The comparative table given below shows the
census figure of 1900 and 1910.

A change in the date of enumeration from
June 1 at the twelfth census, to April 15 at
the thirteenth census, would account largely
for the decrease in the number of calves
reported, since there were at least as many
cows, and therefore had the enumeration been
made as of June 1, there would have been
twelve or thirteen million calves reported as
born during 1910 or five or six million more
than were actually reported on April 15 as
born during that year (7,806,539). On the
other hand a certain number—probably one

or two million—of the older cattle would have
been slaughtered or otherwise eliminated be­
tween April 15 and June 1, so that the net
addition to the total number of cattle on June 1
would have been perhaps four or five million.
Instead, therefore, of a decrease in the total
number of cattle from 67,719,000 on June 1,
1900, to 61,804,000 on April 15, 1910 (a de­
crease of 5,916,000 or 8.7 per cent), there
would probably have been a decrease of not
more than three million, and possibly not over
one million, had the enumeration of 1910
been made as of June 1. Even a compara­
tively small decrease in the number of cattle,
however, is significant when considered in
connection with the increase of 21 per cent in
population during the decade.

The number of dairy cows reported in 1910
was 20,625,000, and the number reported in
1900, 17,136,000, so that there was a nominal
increase of 20.4 per cent.

Cows and heifers not kept for milk in­
creased nominally by 4 per cent during the
decade, but in the absence of any change in
the date of enumeration or the method of
classification, some little decrease would pos­
sibly have appeared

The number of animals classed as steers and
bulls declined from 16,535,000 in 1900 to 13,-
049,000 in 1910, or 21.1 per cent, and had there
been no change in the date of enumeration or
method of classification the decline would have
been even greater.

Taken as a whole the census returns show
that the dairy industry is increasing in im­
portance, whle the business of raising cattle
for slaughter is declining.

The Dairy.Although every animal kept for


232                                                   THE FRIEND OF ALL.

dairy purposes is in the direct road to the sham­
bles, still the path is interesting and often long,
and the milch-cow occupies a place in the public
eye and thought, not to say stomach, not ac­
corded to the mere beef. The Census of the
dairy interest for the same period is as follows,
the number of milch-cows having already been
given:

That is, in 1850 there were made about 13½
pounds of butter and nearly 4½ pounds of cheese
for each person ; in 1880 there were made about
15½ pounds of butter and a shade over half a
pound of cheese for each person. “ Milk sold”
bears no appreciable proportion to milk used.
In Butter production, New York led off in 1850
with 79,766,694 pounds, followed by Pennsylvania
with 39,878,418 pounds; in i860 New York still
led with 103,097,289 and followed again by Penn­
sylvania with 58,653,511 pounds; in 1870 the
same two States remain at the head in the same
order with 107,147,526 and 60,834,644 pounds
respectively; and in 1880 our old friends are still
there, New York at the head with 111,922,423
and Pennsylvania with 79,336,012 pounds. St.
Lawrence was the banner Butter county of New
York, showing in 1870, 8,419,695, and in 1880,
6,973,020 pounds. But as St. Lawrence has an
area of 2900 square miles, her return in 1880
shows about 2405 pounds to the square mile,
while Franklin County, Vt., returns in 1880
4,066,240, or an average of 6465 pounds to each
of its 629 square miles.

THE HEREFORDS.

This breed is a great favorite in the United
States, and especially in the West, for working
oxen and for beef. The first importation of them
was made by Henry Clay, in 1816 or 1817, who
put two pair of them upon his farm at Ashland,
Ky., where they were allowed to run out, Mr.
Clay shortly afterwards becoming a breeder of
Short-Horns.

The Importation of 1840.L. F. Allen writes:
" The largest known importation of Herefords
into the United States was made about the year
1840, upward of 20 in number, by an English­
man, into the City of New York, and taken to
Jefferson County, of that State. A year or two
afterwards the bulk of the herd were removed to
the farm of Mr. Erastus Corning, near Albany,
N. Y., and some of them went into Vermont,
where they were for some years bred, sold and
scattered. While the stock were at his farm, Mr.
Corning sent their importer out again to Eng­

land to purchase more animals, which safely ar­
rived, and were added to the herd. They were
then successfully bred for several years, many
sales made into different and distant parts of the
United States, and they acquired considerable
popularity. The herd was subsequently divided,

Hereford Bull.

Mr. Corning retaining his share, and his partner
taking his away, where they ran out. Mr. Corning
retained his herd at his farm, where he has suc­
cessfully bred, and made sales from them since;
and in the hands of his son, Mr. E. Corning, Jr.,
who is more an amateur than a professed cattle-
breeder, added to by occasional importations
from England, they remain fine specimens of
their race.

“At different periods since 1840, importations
have been made into both the United States and
Canada, and scattered chiefly into the Western
States and Territories for crossing on the native
cows and rougher Texan ones for beef raising, as
well as breeding in their pure blood. They com­
mand ready sales and good prices, are high in
public favor, and add largely to the better quali­
ties of beef-production. They have a Herd-Book
of their own, and have taken an established
position in the broad grazing districts of the
country.”

For Beef.And Mr. Allen adds: “ It is doubtful

Hereford Cow.

whether in early maturity for the shambles they
will equal the Short-Horns, now so universally
prevalent, but as they are active in movement,


BREEDS OF CATTLE IN THE UNITED STATES.                              233

they may better suit localities where the lym­
phatic temperament of the Short­ Horns will not
so well enable them to range over wide distances
to gather their forage. Taken altogether, the
Herefords are a good breed of cattle, and will
undoubtedly maintain a high position among
our bovine varieties.”

The Hereford Ox.The Thompson Cyclopædia
says: “As work oxen the Herefords are inferior
to the Devons, when activity is wanted, but
for heavy draft they have no superior, being
muscular, steady and patient at the yoke. Their
capacity for standing fatigue, and their constitu­
tional hardihood and resistance to cold, are in­
deed remarkable, and of late years they have
become great favorites with the ranchmen in the
far Western States and Territories.

The Hereford Cow.The Hereford cow com­
pared with the ox is small and delicate, not
always handsomely made, to the superficial ob­
server, and shows its relationship to the Devon.
She carries but little flesh in breeding condition,
and when breeding, should not be fed so as to
accumulate much fat, for, in order that the young
be superior, the dam should have plenty of room
inside. With the Herefords, experience has
shown that the dam may not be too large or
coarse, but she should be roomy. Then the
breeder will get, even from apparently inferior
cows, large, handsome steers, that will fatten
early and kindly, and to great weights. When
the cow is done breeding, and ready for fatting,
she will spread out, and accumulate flesh and fat,
and this to a greater degree than if not allowed
to breed.

“The Herefords are a hardy, gentle race
maturing early, and long-lived. The flesh is
superior, handsomely marbled, heavy in the
prime parts, and they fatten to weights fully as
heavy as any known breed.

“Their massive strength, honesty and gentle­
ness make them the best working oxen known,
and the potency of the bulls, when crossed upon
the red or nearly red cows of the country, ren­
ders the steers easily matched in color, as also
in general characteristics of the progeny.

“Points of the Hereford.—In judging the Here-
fords as beef animals the same scale of points
may be adopted as for Short­ Horns, except that
the Herefords are, if anything, more placid, closer
to the ground, heavier in appearance, and, as a
rule, thicker-meated than the present fashionable
Short-Horns.”

SHORT­HORNS HERE.

A great stride in the improvement of Ameri­
can cattle was the importation of the Short-
Horns. Various spasmodic attempts at their
introduction had been made when in 1834 an

association of cattle-breeders in the Scioto Val­
ley, Ohio, sent an agent to England who pur­
chased the best animals he could find, imported
nineteen into Philadelphia, and drove them to
Ohio. Other importations were made by this
association and others, and in 1837 to 1839 a
great English breeder named Whittaker sent over
more than a hundred Short-Horns, which he sold
at auction at good prices. These animals went
into Pennsylvania, Ohio and Kentucky. In
1850 the herd of Thomas Bates was sold, and
the best of his choice stock fell into the hands of
Lord Ducie, already the owner of a noble herd.
He died, and in 1853 a peremptory sale of his
stock was widely advertised. At this sale
Samuel Thorne, of Dutchess County, N. Y., bought
several of the best and highest-priced animals,
and added to them other choice animals from
other herds. These were brought over and bred
here, and with other importations and constant
and successful attempts at improvement, the
United States turned the scale, and has repeat­
edly sold to Englishmen Short-Horn stock to go
back.

The Campbell Sale. — Samuel Campbell, Esq.,
of New York Mills, Oneida County, N. Y., fur­
nishes another illustration of the adage that “ it
is the busiest man who has time.” Although
the manager of the great mills which give the
place its name, he still had means, judgment,
enterprise and enthusiasm to devote to the breed­
ing of choice Short-Horn cattle, and held at his
place, September 10, 1873, a sale “of the entire
herd of pure­bred Short-Horns” on the farm.
This sale was the high-water mark of prices for
that description of cattle. His catalogue occu­
pied fifty pages, and gave a long pedigree of each
animal, some going back with twenty items.
This catalogue was kept in type, and, after the
sale, the name of each purchaser and the price
paid were appended at the foot of the pedigree
of each lot; and to all was prefixed a

SUMMARY OF THE SALE.


234                                            THE FRIEND OF ALL

Here is the Catalogue’s story of the animal
that brought the highest price :

19 8th Duchess of Geneva, red and white ; calved July 28,1866;

got by 3d Lord Oxford (22200),
Dam 1st Duchess of Geneva by 2d Grand Duke (12961),

—  Duchess 71st by Duke of Glo‘ster (11382),

—  Duchess 66th by 4th Duke of York (10167),

—  Duchess 55th by 4th Duke of Northumberland (3649),

—  Duchess 38th by Norfolk (2377),

—  Duchess 33d by Belvedere (1706),

—  Duchess 19th by 2d Hubback (1423),
-— Duchess 12th by The Earl (646),

—  Duchess 4th by Ketton 2d (710),

—  Duchess 1st by Comet (155),

—  Duchess by Favourite (252),—by Daisy Bull (186),-—by

Favourite (252),—by Hubback (319),—by J. Brown's Red
Bull (97).

Bulled June 1, by 2d Duke of Oneida.
R. Pavin Davies, England..............................$40,600

The total record of animals sold to go to Eng­
land was :

8th Duchess of Geneva.................................  $40,600

10th Duchess of Geneva................................    35,Ooo

12th Lady of Oxford.................................     7,000

1st Duchess of Oneida..................................    30,600

Atlantic Gwynne.......................................     2,000

3d Duchess of Oneida..................................    15,600

Lady Worcester........................................     2,000

8th Duchess of Oneida.................................    15,3oo

9th Duchess of Oneida..................................    10,000

Prince Alfred..........................................        600

10 animals, averaging $15,870........................$158,700

As Dairy Animals.For years the Short­ Horns
held a high, perhaps the highest, place in public
favor. But such superior dairy qualities have been

Short-Horn Bull.

tately developed in other breeds, that the Short-
Horn has lost its lead for milk and butter.
Sixty-six pounds of milk a day was a high yield
for a Short-Horn,cow abundantly fed, and milked
three times. But for beef, the Short-Horns still
deservedly rank high. Youatt and Martin re­
late that these cattle first attracted general
notice by the production of a Durham ox which
at 5 years old weighed 3024 pounds, was carried
around for years as a show, but dislocated his
Lip at the age of 11 years, and was killed weigh­
ing 3780 pounds. And this weight, they say,
was not chargeable to his superior size, but to
" the excessive ripeness of his points.” Allen

says : “It is held, as a flesh-producing animal,
that in early maturity, weight of meat, ripeness of
points, and giving the most flesh in the best
places, the great merit of the Short-Horn is
found. He who feeds cattle for the general
market wants the animal which makes the quick­
est and most profitable returns for the capital
invested and the food consumed. The Short-
Horn at three years, past, well fatted, is fit for
slaughter, equally with the Devon or Hereford at
the same age, or the Highland Scott or Galloway
at four years, or the ‘ native ' at five or six years.
He is claimed by many to be a less feeder for his
weight. There may be truth in this, as he is less
active, and more inclined to take his rest, than
the lighter breeds, which are less sluggish in
their habits.”

Proper Homes of the Short-Horns.This very
characteristic of quietness and tendency to slug-

Short-Horn Cow.

gishness, which so tells in their favor under cer­
tain conditions, is against them in certain others.
They must have abundant feed and good pas­
turage. Broken lands, with short grasses, do
not answer well with them. They need level or
gently undulating soils, with luxuriant grasses
upon them. On lean, hungry soils, with scanty
herbage, other breeds, such as the Devon, High­
land and Galloway, will do better. A cold
climate, in which they are well taken care of,
does not seem to disagree with them. Latitudes
from 400 to 450 north seem to suit them as
well as warmer ones, provided they have good
winter protection. The severe winters of the
North are no bar to their success. Wherever
the proper herbage will grow—blue grass, for
instance—they may be successfully raised ; but
they must be taken care of. The New York
office of the Short-Horn Herd Book, and head­
quarters generally of that race of cattle, is at the
store of R. H. Allen & Co., 191 Water St. The
Secretary of the Club is Lewis F. Allen, Black
Rock, N. Y.

Rationale of Short Horns.—Prof. Hengerveld
says, in writing of the Dutch Frisian cattle:
“It is even supposed that the shortness of the
horns has a great deal to do with the fineness of


BREEDS OF CATTLE IN THE UNITED STATES.                          235

the shape. Though it may not be true in every
respect, yet the exquisiteness of form and quality
depends much upon the network of the horns
and the fineness of the hair. It may be shown
on physiological grounds that long horns take
away nutritive matter, especially azotic sub­
stances, to the great disadvantage of the bodily
development, and consequently to the production
of beef and milk. Breeders are therefore quite
right in paying particular attention to the short­
ness of the horns.”

THE AYRSHIRES.

Allen says of these: “Their trial here has
been successful. They are hardy, healthy, well
fitted to our climate and pastures, and prove
good milkers both in the imported originals and
their progeny. Their flow of milk is good in

quantity and fair in quality; yet in this country
they do not yield so much in quantity as it is
alleged they have produced in Scotland. The
chief reason for this is obvious. Ayrshire has a
moist climate, an almost continuous drizzle of
rains or moisture pervading it, making fresh,
green pastures; a cooler and more equable tem­
perature in summer, and warmer in winter than
ours. Our American climate is liable to ex­
tremes of cold in winter, heat in summer, and
protracted droughts, for weeks, drying up the
herbage. These differences alone account for a
diminished quantity in the yield of milk from
the Scotch to the American Ayrshires.” And
he adds : “ We have little doubt that the Ayr-
shires owe their chief qualities, both in milk as
well as in form and color, to their Short-Horn
progenitors on one side.”

Their Claims in America.—Mr. T. S. Gold, of West
Cornwall, Conn.: “ For the ability of Ayrshires
to thrive on scanty pasturage, to pick a living,
for soununess of constitution and freedom from
an) hereditary taints, for strength of blood,—i.e.,
when graded upon other stock the powers of
imparting to the progeny in large degree their
own characteristics,—they have no superiors
among neat stock of any breed or of no breed.
Of compact form, fine in bone, and in all parts

of which the body is composed, there is no
waste of horn or bone, or superfluous flesh, to
build up, and maintain ; but these parts are all
balanced, forming a symmetrical whole that at
once commends itself to the lover of good cattle,
and even when his vision is dimmed and per­
verted by always looking for the fine red of the
Devon or the imposing form of the Durham, he
still sees in the Ayrshire a very fine animal, if it
only had a good color, or if it was not lacking in
size.

“ A word about the Ayrshires as workers. But
few in this State have been broken to the yoke;
but whenever this has been done, as far as my ex­
perience goes, they show great spirit as workers,
great endurance, all those qualities which we
esteem in working oxen. I have a pair of Ayr­
shire stags, six years old, that for three years
have been in the yoke almost every working day,
and that for their weight will out-pull anything
I have ever owned, I think I am safe in saying
that I have ever seen.”

Some of their Milk Records.—J. D. W. French,
North Andover, Mass., reports for nine years:

He describes Roxanna as “one of the largest
producers, having yielded in one year more than

8ooo pounds, and in five years 17 tons, of milk.
The feed was moderate, intended to keep the
animals in good breeding condition rather than
to force a large milk record.” “In summer the
feed has been pasturage; sometimes, in addition,
green fodder or shorts, on account of shortness
of feed from drought. In winter, the daily ration
was hay, eight quarts mangolds and four quarts
grain,”


236                                                      THE FRIEND OF ALL.

C. M. Winslow, Brandon, Vt., reports a herd
of 13 cows, summed up thus:

or about 6030 pounds. He also reports single
year‘s records, of Queen of Ayr an average of
9404½ pounds for six consecutive years after she
was ten years old; Lily Dale, 8984 pounds in 366
days; and two own sisters of Prince of Ayr, of
10,426 and 10,801 pounds.

Much larger yields of milk are reported from
Scotland than in the United States, a single
cow belonging to the Duke of Athol having
produced 13,456 pounds, or 1305 gallons.

But public interest attaches now especially to
two great leading classes. One of these is that
from the Channel Islands, at the head the Jerseys,
and affiliated with these, the Alderneys and the
Guernseys. The other comprises the breeds
from high latitudes in Western Europe, where
they are divided as Highland and Lowland,
the latter even as far north as Labrador, and
known here as Dutch Frisian and as Holstein.

The Secretary and Editor of the Association
of Ayrshire Breeders, is C. M. Winslow, Brandon,
Vermont.

POLLED CATTLE.

Allen says that in 1837 he saw a very fine
black, polled Galloway cow, at the General Hos­
pital, Philadelphia, but could not ascertain how
she came there. He goes on to tell how they
have become established in the United States:

“About the year 1850, some enterprising Scotch
farmers made the first importations of Galloways
into the vicinity of Toronto, in Canada West.
They already had the Short-Horns there, of high
quality, imported many years before, and some of
them were kept and much liked by the same
farmers who brought out the Galloways. But
the latter were the cattle of their native land,
and they longed for, and sought, the cattle of
their native hills and heather. There must have
been several different importations, for in the
year 1857 we saw upwards of forty of them ex­
hibited by competing owners at a Provincial
agricultural show, at Brantford, and have since
met them in equal numbers at other shows in
the Province.

“ They were fine cattle—full, round, and comely
in form ; robust in appearance; showing a ready
aptitude to take on flesh ; elastic to the touch ;
a good skin, with long, thick, wavy hair; of
placid look, and apparently kindly temper. In
addition to these good qualities, some of their
owners declared them to be ‘good milkers.’ But
their indications in that line did not show it, al­

though, in practice, there may have been excep­
tions to what we thought indicated an opposite
tendency. Their colors were black, generally,
although we found one or two dull reds, or duns,
and a brindle (black and red mixed), among them
—which colors, according to Youatt, are admis­
sible. Taken altogether, the cattle fully answered
his description.

“ Within the last few years several importations
of the improved Galloway (now more usually
called Angus, and Aberdeen Polled, as they have

Galloway Bull.

been for many years bred and improved in Aber-
deenshire and other eastern counties of Scotland)
have been made into the United States. The
first importation of particular note was made by
a Scottish gentleman, Mr. Grant, into Kansas,
who bred them with spirit and intelligence in
considerable numbers, and where they still re­
main in the hands of his successors. Crossed
on the native cows of that region, they have

Galloway Cow.

achieved a deserved reputation as beef-producers,
and are extending in demand for the broad ranches
of the West.

“Their main excellence is in beef production.
They are of full average size with our largest
common cattle, mature as early as the Herefords,
and in the absence of horns are by some preferred
as safer in transportation on the railroads to
distant city markets. The bulls have a remark­
able prepotency, like other distinct breeds, to
impress their characteristics on the miscellaneous-
bred native cows upon which they are used—a


BREEDS OF CATTLE IN THE UNITED STATES.                              237

single cross making an individuality of appear­
ance and quality every way favorable to their
use. The cows do not excel as milk-producers,
and will not be sought for dairy purposes. Their
milk, however, is rich in cream, and according to
the quantity yielded gives a satisfactory amount
of butter and cheese. They have established a
permanent reputation among the various breeds
which will be maintained in our future beef pro­
duction.”

The Polled Angus.—These cattle have much of
the Galloway form, and they might be mistaken,

Aberdeen-Angus Bull.

one for the other, by an unaccustomed eye.
But the Angus are larger, longer in the leg, thin­
ner in the shoulder, and flatter in the side. They
are generally black or with a few white spots,
but often yellow, either brindled, dark red or
silver-colored yellow. That they are taking firm
root in this country, may be seen, among other

Aberdeen­ Angus Cow.

indications, from a sale in Kansas City, Mo.,

April ii, 1883, where

10 Aberdeen or Angus cows sold for $6300.

average, $630.
32 Aberdeen or Angus bulls sold for $15,955;

average, $498.59.
6 Aberdeen or Angus cows sold for $4560;

average, $760.
5 Aberdeen or Angus bulls sold for $2860.

average, $572.
19 Galloway cows and heifers sold for $10,370;

average, $545.79.
54 Galloway bulls sold for $27,440; average,

$508.14.

Some grade yearling polled bulls sold for $180
each; and grade polled cows for $150 to $250.

At another three days’ sale at the same place,
later in the same month,
14 Aberdeen-Angus cows and heifers sold for

$9260; an average of $661.42.
26 Aberdeen-Angus bulls sold for $11,325; aver­
age, $435-57.
11 Aberdeen-Angus cows and heifers sold for

$10,505; average, $955.
47 Aberdeen-Angus bulls sold for $28,000; aver.

age, $595.74.
60 Galloway cows and heifers sold for $24,100;
average, $401.66.
5 Galloway bulls sold for $2440; average, $488.
These figures we copy from two numbers of the
Breeder s Gazette, Chicago, Ill. An examination
of one number of that paper, and especially of its
advertising columns, will well repay any person
interested in the present and future of cattle,
horses, sheep and swine.

THE JERSEYS.

The pre-eminence of these cattle lies in the
amount and especially in the quality of the milk
yielded by their cows. Their breeders, while
willing sometimes to admit that other cows may
approach them in amount of milk, claim that in
the richness of their milk, the Jerseys are unsur­
passed. And here the reports seem to leave the
Alderneys and the Guernseys far behind the cows
of their sister-island. The best record of a
Guernsey cow that has reached the writer is that
of Mr. Ledyard‘s cow Elegante, who is credited
with about 60 pounds of milk in a day, and 19 to
19½ pounds of butter in a week, with other cows
producing 16 to 18 pounds of butter in a week.

Echo Farm.—This most interesting and attrac­
tive dairy-farm was the subject of an instructive
article in Harper's Magazine for Oct. 1878. It
was originated by F. R. Starr, “a gentleman of
education, intelligence and wealth,” who bought
a farm in Litchfield, Conn., about 1869 as a sum­
mer home, became interested in choice stock, and
Echo Farm was the outcome, devoted to Jerseys
as dairy stock; and the investment became, per­
haps unexpectedly to the owner, a profitable one.
Since that article was written, the business has
greatly increased, the farm and number of animals
enlarged, new buildings added, and the enterprise
is in the hands of the “ Echo Farm Company,
Full-Blooded Jersey stock, entered in the
‘American Jersey Cattle Club Herd Register,’
a Specialty.” They deliver milk at ten cents a
quart and butter at one dollar a pound, to cus­
tomers in New York and Brooklyn daily, and
find ready sale for what they make. From this
farm comes the best accessible report of a yearly
yield of milk from Jersey cows, namely, Starr's


238

THE FRIEND OF ALL.

Locust, 9528 pounds. This is a comparatively
insignificant yearly milk record. But as there
are “ deacons and deacons,” so there is milk and
milk. When the question comes up, What cows
will produce the most butter? the Jerseys make
a magnificent showing. Conrad Wilson, in
Harper s Magazine, Jan. 1883, gives a list of the

uter yield for one year of 10 Jersey cows, the

ghest with a record of 778 pounds, and the
lowest with 500, the aggregate of the 10 adding
5965 pounds of butter, or 596½ pounds per cow,
nearly 11½ pounds per week.

Greatest Yield of Butter in One Week.—June 28,
1883, a seven days’ test of the Jersey cow, Value
2d, No. 6844, owned by Watts & Seth, of Balti­
more, Md., was completed by a committee of the
Maryland Improved Live-Stock Breeders’ Asso­
ciation, and Col. C. M. Weld, of New York, on
the part of the American Jersey Cattle Club. The
cow was milked at intervals of eight hours, yield­
ing 327 pounds of milk, from which was produced
25 pounds and 211/12 ounces of butter. The cow
was bred in New Jersey, and was purchased
last fall by her present owners for $2000. She is
pronounced the best butter-producing cow in the
United States.

Even with this showing, it is claimed that June
23, by the opening of a faucet, exactly 2 pounds
of milk were lost, which would have added 22/3
ounces of butter, bringing the week‘s product
to 25 pounds 57/12 ounces. The weight of the
week‘s milk was 327 pounds, or 425/7 pounds
per day; and there was a pound of butter to
show for nearly 13 pounds of milk. Mr. Seth
writes: “As neither accurate weights nor mea­
sures were used, I am unable to say what amount
of food was given her. Of grain, she had corn
chop, bran, cotton­seed meal and linseed meal.
She was fed three times a day; morning and
evening corn, bran and cotton­seed, and at noon
a small quantity of linseed meal was substituted
in the place of the cotton­seed. For three nights
after the last milking she had a small quantity
of oatmeal gruel, made of, say, ½ pound of dry
meal. Her green food consisted of cut clover
and orchard grass mixed, and oats and peas
mixed, on alternate days; besides, she had
the run in the morning of about one acre
of old pasture that had been completely
grazed off this season. At night, she was put
into another lot of about one acre, mostly wood,
with a little orchard grass outside of the wood,
on which three cows, herself included, had been
running for three weeks. These runs were given
her for air, shade and water principally. Of
pasturage, strictly speaking, I have none, as I soil
my cattle entirely, and for the whole period she
was fed with reference to the preservation of
good health, hoping for as good a yield as was

consistent therewith.” The weight of “Value
2d,” was, at the time of this trial, 955 pounds.

The Jerseys To­day.—The American Encyclo­
paedia of Agriculture says of them : “ The butter
from the cows is very rich in cream and deep
yellow in color, so much so that a few cows in a
herd will decidedly change the color of the butter
of the whole herd. The percentage of cream to
milk varies from 18 to 25 per cent., and the pro­
portion of butter to cream varies from 3.70 to
8.07 in 100 parts. Twenty-six quarts per day has
been recorded as the product of an individual
cow, and 14 pounds of butter per week. Sixteen
quarts per day may be regarded as a good yield,
and when we take into consideration the light

Jersey Bull.

weight of the cow, and the fact that the milk will
yield from one sixth to one quarter of the richest
cream, we need not wonder that those gentle and
deer-like cattle have become universal favorites
as family cows.

Description.—Lewis F. Allen, the leading editor
of the Short-Horn Herd-Book, and probably not
unduly prejudiced in favor of any other breed:
“ Beginning with the head, the most char­
acteristic feature, the muzzle, is fine; the nose
either dark brown or black, and occasionally a
yellowish shade, with a peculiar mealy, light-
colored hair, running up the face into a smoky
hue, when it gradually takes the general color of
the body. The face is slightly dishing, clean of
flesh, mild and gentle in expression ; the eye clear
and full, and encircled with a distinct ring of the
color of the nose; the forehead bold ; the horn
short, curving inward, and waxy in color, with
black tips ; the ear sizable, thin, and quick in
movement. The whole head is original, and
blood-like in appearance—more so than in any
other of the cattle race—reminding one strongly
of the head of our American elk. The neck
is somewhat depressed — would be called ewe-
necked by some—but clean in the throat, with
moderate or little dewlap; the shoulders
are wide and somewhat ragged, with promi­
nent points, running down to a delicate arm,


BREEDS OF CATTLE IN THE UNITED STATES.                              239

and slender legs beneath. The ribs are fat,
yet giving sufficient play for good lungs; the
back depressed and somewhat hollow; the
belly deep and large ; the hips tolerably wide;
the rump and tail high; the loin and quarter
medium in length; the thigh thin and deep;
the twist wide, to accommodate a clean, good-
sized udder; the flanks medium ; the hocks, or
gambrel-joints, crooked ; the hind legs small; the
udder capacious, square, set well forward, and
covered with soft, silky hair; the teats fine, stand­
ing well apart and nicely tapering; the milk-
veins prominent. On the whole she is a homely,
blood-like, gentle, useful little housekeeping body,
with a most kindly temper, loving to be petted,
and, like a pony with the children, readily be­
comes a great favorite with those who have her
about them, either in pasture, paddock, stable or
the lawn. The colors are usually light red or
fawn, occasionally smoky gray, and sometimes
black, mixed or splashed more or less with
white.”

A Milk, not a Dairy Cow.The American Farmer's
Pictorial Cyclopædia of Live Stock sums up the

Jersey Cow.
matter: “In the strict sense of the word the
Jersey is not a dairy cow. She is essentially the
cow for rich milk, but not a cheese-maker; she
lacks size to give quantity in this respect. The
butter globules are not only larger than in other
breeds, but the covering, the film enveloping the
fat globules, is weaker. Hence the globules give
up the butter easily in churning. The cream is
also high-colored from the excess of yellow pig­
ment it contains.

“ For the family requiring milk rich in cream
and butter, the Jerseys will always be desirable,
and, since they have taken kindly to our climate
in nearly every section of the Union, and even in
Canada, they have, from their docile and trac­
table dispositions, become universal favorites
where kindly treated. The bulls are not always
good-tempered, and hence require not only a
firm hand but careful management; and the
cow, if abused, will by no means fail to resent
the brutal treatment.”

Points.The following scale was prepared for
the guidance of judges at agricultural fairs by
the American Jersey Cattle Club, adopted April
I, 1875:

Points.                                                                             Counts.

1.  Head small, lean and rather long........................ 2

2.  Face dished, broad between the eyes and narrow be­

tween the horns......................................    1

3Muzzle dark, and encircled by a light color..............    1

4Eyes full and placid...................................    1

5Horns small, crumpled and amber-color.................    3

6.  Ears small and thin.....................................    1

7Neck straight, thin, rather long, with clean throat, and

not heavy at the shoulders............................ 4

8.  Shoulders sloping and lean; withers thin; breast neither

deficient nor beefy ................................... 3

9.  Back level to the setting on of tail, and broad across

the loin............................................. 4

10.  Barrel hooped, broad and deep at the flank............. 8

11.  Hips wide apart, and fine in the bone; rump long and

broad............................................. 4

12.  Thighs long, thin and wide apart; with legs standing

square ; and not to cross in walking..................    4

13Legs short, small below the knees, with small hoof......    3

14Tail fine, reaching the hocks, with good switch.........    3

15.  Hide thin and mellow, with fine soft hair ...............    4

16Color of hide where the hair is, white; on udder and

inside of ears, yellow____...........................    5

17Fore udder full in form, and running well forward.....    8

18Hind udder full in form, and well up behind............    8

19Udder free from long hair, and not fleshy..............    5

20Teats rather large, wide apart and squarely placed......    6

21Milk-veins prominent..................................    5

22Escutcheon high and broad, and full on thighs..........    8

23Disposition quiet and good-natured.....................    3

24.  General appearance rather bony than fleshy.............    6

Perfection...........................................100

In judging heifers, omit Nos. 17, 18 and 21.

The same scale of points shall be used in judging bulls, omit­
ting Nos. 17, 18, 19 and 21, and making moderate allowance for
masculinity.

Note.—It is recommended that judges at fairs do not award
prizes to animals falling below the following minimum stan­
dard, viz.: cows, 70 counts; heifers, 55 counts; bulls, 50 counts.

Comparative Value of Points.The gist of the
advice of the Jersey Herd-Book : The highest
excellence of any milking cow lies in the udder.
This must not only be full in form, that is in
line with the belly, but it must not be cut off
square in front, like that of a goat. It should
be rounded, full, presenting great breadth behind,
and carried well up between the thighs. The
milk-veins should be full and carried well for­
ward toward the forelegs. If knotted and with
curves so much the better.

The tail is another essential point. Whatever
its size at the root, it must be large and tapering,
and have a good switch of hair.

The chest should be broad and deep: this
shows good respiration, essential to feeding and
health. But in the dairy cow, especially when
viewed from before, there will be no appearance
of massiveness. On the contrary, she will give
an appearance of delicate fineness, and will look
large behind, swelling gradually from behind the
shoulders. She may not be closely ribbed, in
[ fact should not be close, only comparatively so.


240                                                   THE FRIEND OF ALL,

The best milkers, everywhere, will be found to
be rather loosely put together between the last
rib and the hips, and good milkers must be
roomy in the flank.

The hind quarters must be long from the
point of the rump to the hock, and well filled up;
yet this does not mean rounded and massive in
flesh ; on the contrary, the best milkers will be
rather lean and perhaps high-boned. Neverthe­
less the same animal, when out of milk and fat,
may fill up ; and perhaps present a fully rounded
contour, while yet possessing all the delicacy of
points characteristic of the high-bred dairy cow.

A cow may have large and heavy ears; her
back may not be fully straight from the withers
to the top of the hips; her rump may be sloping;
her tail may not reach the hocks;—all these are
defects, the latter a serious one, yet if the milk­
ing organs are super-excellent it will outweigh
all these.

The office of the American Jersey Cattle Club
is at 49 Cedar Street, New York; Thomas J. Hand,
Secretary. Headquarters of Guernsey Cattle
Club are at Farmington, Conn.; Edward Norton,
Secretary.

THE HOLSTEINS.

Their Introduction Here.Holstein cattle were
brought into this country about 1625 by the
“ West India Company.” In 1810 a bull and two
cows were brought over by William Jarvis, and
put on his farm in Weathersfield, Vermont. Al­
though they did well, they were allowed to mix
with other breeds, and to run out. Various im­
portations were made, beginning in 1852 with a
single cow. The extraordinary good qualities of
that cow led, in 1857, to the further importation
of a bull and two cows, and in 1859 to that of
four more cows. Other importations were made
from time to time. But the start of the breed
acquired here may be said to date from the
bringing over in 1861, by Winthrop W. Chenery,
of a bull and four cows, and their establishment
on the Highland Stock Farm, Belmont, Mass.,
and form the basis of our present Holstein stock.
The animals came from the vicinity of Beemster
and Purmerend, in North Holland, and formed
the ground­work of the present Holstein stock
in this country. From that time repeated im­
portations have taken place, Americans con­
stantly scrutinizing the original habitat of the
- breed, and bringing over the best cows and bulls.
Here is a summary of a Catalogue of imported
heifers in quarantine till December 12, 1883, on
the farm of the Unadilla Valley Herd, S. Hoxie,
Whitestown, N. Y., giving the number of the im­
portation, name, time of calving, and the milk
rate of the mother with this calf for one day and
for ten days:

The average largest daily yield of the 29 cows
was 66 pounds; and the average largest yield for
10 days for the 28 (the dam of No. 10 not given),
6343 pounds. Nos. 3, 11 and 19 are each given
a daily record of 83.6. Of these No. 3 has the
largest for 10 days; and here is her description
in the Catalogue:

No. 3.
Lady Seffinga, 2d, bred by W. Seffinga, Mars-
sum, Friesland ; calved March 19, 1882; sire,
Willem ; dam, Lady Seffinga.

Black predominating; shield; white upon the nose, over
shoulders and over hips; white belly, legs and lower half of tail.
Milk record of dam at six years of age, after dropping this calf,
on grass alone, two milkings per day; largest yield, 83.6 lb.;
Ten days, 796.4 lb. Ear­mark 126.

Other milk records of imported cows:
Maid of Twisk, 15,9605/8 lb. in 336 days.
Jacoba Hertog, two years old, 10,430 lb. This

cow in 1881 weighed 1120 lb., and gave in 16

days 1185 lb., or 65 lb. more than her live

weight.
Cjristji Bleeker, 14,220 lb.

Performance in the United States.This is of
course the point of the deepest interest: not
what have they done in North Holland, but what
are they doing here ? The Holstein Herd-Book,
Vol. 5, will help answer this question.

Smith & Powell, Syracuse, N. Y., report 22
cows, of which 13 were milked 365 days, with an
aggregate result of 246,927 lb., or an average of
11,223 lb. The largest yield in a single day was
84 lb., and the smallest 34 lb. The largest yield
for 30 consecutive days was 2309 lb., and the

* The “ ear­mark” is a small piece of flattened steel wire,
stamped with number or name, or both, inserted in the ear as
a lady wears her ear-rings.


BREEDS OF CATTLE IN THE UNITED STATES.

241

smallest 931. The oldest cow was 7 years and
the youngest 2 years 10 mo. at the end of the
year. Cow Jannek, whose average weekly record
of milk was about 250 lb., made in one week 19
lb. 15 oz., and in 10 days 28 lb. 3½ oz.

T. C. Maxwell & Bro., Geneva, N. Y., report 17
cows, of which 4 were milked the 365 days, with
an aggregate result of 9178+ lb. The largest
yield in a single day was 73 lb., and the smallest
29 lb. The largest yield for 30 consecutive days
was 2067¾ lb., and the smallest 839. The oldest
cow was 6 years and the youngest 2 ye. 7 mo.
at the end of the year. Cow Eltona made 17 lb.
14 oz. of butter in 7 days and 35 lb. 3 oz. in 14 days,
her milk-yield during the same being from 59 to
63 lb. per day.

T. G. Yeomans and Sons, Walworth, N. Y., re­
port 18 cows, none of which were in milk for a
full year, the 18 cows aggregating 1775 days, or
an average of a little over 98 days each, the
whole record beginning some as early as Jan. 20,
and all ending June 14, 1881. The entire yield
was 77,643 lb. 10 oz., or an average of 4313+ lb.
each for the time. The largest yield in a single
day was 78 lb. 12 oz., and the smallest 40 lb. 12
oz. The largest yield for 30 consecutive days was
2130 lb. 8 oz., and the smallest 1067 lb. 11 oz.
The oldest cow at the end of record was 8 ye. 6
mo.; 2 ye. 5 mo. Lady Walworth made 19 lb. of
butter in 1 week, 37 lb. 6oz. in 2 weeks; Ophelia

HOLSTEIN COW, AAGGIE 2D, OWNED BY T, G. YEOMANS &

Sons, Walworth, N. Y.

(two years) made 13 lb. 5 oz., and Georgie (two
years) 12 lb. 2 oz. of butter in a week.

John Mitchell, Meadowbrook Farm, Orange
County, N. Y., reports among other cows, Frieda
in one day 77 lb.; one month 2232 lb.; six months
10,190 lb.; and in one year 16,076 lb.

Carey R. Smith, Iowa City, Iowa: of the cow
Mink: “Her yield is as follows: for ten days,
when on trial for butter, 815 lb. of milk, from the
cream of which was made 29 lb. 6 oz. of butter;
best consecutive ten days, 849 lb. of milk; best
daily yield, 91 lb.; monthlv yield, 2490½ lb.;
yearly yield, 16,628½ lb.”
16

Gerrit S. Miller, Peterboro, N. Y.: “Johanna
produced 12,264 lb. of milk in 11 months; was
milked twice daily, except during a few days in
August when, with three milkings she reached
98 lb. per day. Nanny Smit (two years old), dur­
ing her first 30 days, in milk, gave 1293 lb.; lar­
gest yield in one day, 50 lb. During the present
season we have given three cows of our herd a
month's test, with the following results : On

Holstein Bull, Billy Boelyn, owned by G. S. Miller,

Peterboro, N. Y.

the 21st day of May, Ondine, No. 828, completed
a thirty-one days’ trial; total yield of milk,
2545¼ lb.; average per day, 82 lb. 1 oz. ; best 10
consecutive days, 847¼ lb.; average per day for
best 10 consecutive days, 86 lb. 3 oz. It was du­
ring these 6 days that she reached her best daily
yield, 90½ lb.; her three milkings on that day
were 31, 31 and 29½ lb.; of 27 consecutive milk-
ings, 23 ranged from 28 to 31 lb. each. Her food
consisted of long dry hay and a mixture of grain
(wheat bran being the largest portion), fed dry in
varying quantity; the total amount would be
about equal to 18 qts. daily; no slop or liquid,
except water, was given. Empress, No. 539 (ten
years old, and a cripple, having nearly lost the
use of one hind leg from injuries received on
shipboard), and Johanna, No. 344, were turned
int a lot where the feed was good ; they had grain
when they would take it; some days they re­
fused it. During the month of August Empress
gave 2276½ lb. ; largest amount in one day, 81
lb.; average per day, 73½ lb. Johanna was sold
during the latter part of the month at her best
flow of milk, and the trial ended. During the
last 31 days she was in my possession, she gave
2407t lb.; average per day, 77¾ lb.; average for
last 23 days, 80 lb.; best yield in one day, 88 lb.

“There are now 18 cows (over two years old)
in milk in the Kriemhild herd, and the average
of the best day's yield of 10 of them is 68 lb.”

And Mr. Miller adds it as his “belief that se­
lected cows of this breed will make as much, if
not more, butter than those of any other breed.”

From sources outside the Herd-Book : Smith
and Powell report, in Breeder s Gazeite, May 10,
1883: Clothilde, three years old, gave in one


242                                                    THE FRIEND OF ALL.

year 15,622 lb. 2 oz. Addie, three years old, in
11½ months, 13,521 lb. 2 oz.

Cow Echo, 121.—(For portrait, see page 241.)
This cow has furnished the largest year's product
of milk yet reported in the United States. She
belongs to F. C. Stevens, Esq., Maplewood Stock
Farm, Attica, N. Y. Mr. Stevens writes : “ On
March 11, 1882, she gave birth to a heifer calf,
which ran with her until the 20th, when we be­
gan to milk her. On the 20th of May she was
turned out to pasture. During the season she
had the same care as the rest of my stock, and
no more. In September she was taken to the
Western New York Fair, at Rochester, and was
away from home one week. The last week in
December, for the first time during the year, I
figured up the milk records of my herd; and
finding Echo's so large, I thought something
might be done with her; so I instructed my men
to feed her three pailfuls of bran per day (just
double what she had been having since she
came from pasture). When in the stable she
had fifty-five pounds of corn ensilage, six pounds
of hay, or twelve of cut straw, with the amount
of bran named. The following is the record by
months:

“ From March 20 until June 5 she was milked
twice a day. From June 5 until August 4 she
was milked three times a day. The rest of the
year only twice a day.”

Echo was bred by Mr. Miller, of Peterboro, al­
ready referred to, and sold by him as a three-
year-old. He also bred and sold Ægis No. 69,
who has made a year‘s record of 16,823 lb. 10 oz.

Milk Sold.Here is one instance: S. N. Wright,
South Elgin, Ill.: “I send you the milk record
of my dairy of twenty-seven grade Holstein cows
for the year 1882, as follows: 219,900 lb. milk,
bringing me net $2638.80, averaging 8107 lb. of
milk per head, netting $97.73 per head. I en­
deavor to have my cows go dry at least sixty
days, which shows the cows were in milk on an
average of 303 days, and that the twenty-seven
cows gave me an average of a little over 26½ lb.
of milk per day. This milk was taken to the
butter and cheese factory, owned and operated

by the Elgin Co-operative Creamery Association.
The cows are nearly all of my own raising, using
always the best full-blood Holstein bulls I can
get, and selecting the best heifer calves.”

One Instance of Fattening.T. B. Wales, Iowa
City, Iowa: “I would like to hear of a Short-
Horn, Hereford, Polled Angus or any animal of
any breed that can equal the gain in weight made
by one of my calves, Jaap 4th, 1337, calved Aug.
30, 1882, as per statement below. It is not im­
possible that this little fellow, when of age, may
get away with some of the fat-stock-show sweep­
stakes premiums. The weighings have been
made by disinterested parties who are ready to
take oath to their truth. The sire of this calf,
Jaap (451), and his dam Tietje 2d (726), were both
members of the first-prize herd at St. Louis last
fall. Feb. 9, 1883, weighed 550 lb., March 8
weighed 674 lb.; gain in twenty-seven days, 124
lb.; April 7 weighed 834 lb.; gain in thirty days,
160 lbs. May 8 weighed 954 lb.; gain in thirty-
one days, 120 lb. It will be seen that from
March 8 to April 7, thirty days, the gain was
five and one third pounds per day, and at eight
months and nine days he weighed 954 pounds.”

Comparisons. Conrad Wilson made several
comparative statements in the article already
referred to. He makes the milk-yield of 9 Hol-
steins 144,137 lb., to which add Echo's 18,120,
and we have the milk-yield of 10, 162,257 lb., or
an average of 16,225+ lb. Taking the best speci­
men he can find of the Short-Horns, theDevons,
the Ayrshires, the Jerseys, and natives, he gets
56,966 lb., or 11,400 lb. each cow, an average of
4825 below the Holsteins. But when he comes
to butter he finds an average of 596½ lb. per cow
for 10 Jersey cows; and the highest specimen he
can get from each of the same five classes, in
which he gives 509 lb. to the Holstein, only
brings the average to “473 lb. per cow, being 120
lb. less than the average of 10 Jerseys, and 300 lb.
less than the product of the best Jersey,” which
is 778 lb. for Darling‘s Eurotas. He gives four
daily yields higher than Miller‘s Ondine 90½ lb.
But, as the highest of all is Miller‘s Empress, 108
lb., and that is not claimed as a record she has
made here, but one made in Holland before she
was imported, it leaves the head of the class
rather misty.

Their Status.Different breeders and dairymen
will continue to differ in opinion; and the Short-
Horn, the Hereford, the Ayrshire, the Jersey, the
Holstein and others will continue each to be
regarded by its friends as the best breed. Cer­
tainly the Holsteins are ranking, if not at the
head, at least very near it; and there is none
likelier to stand in 1900 at the top for work, for
beef, for milk and for butter.

The Secretary of the “ Holstein Breeders’ As-


BREEDS OF CATTLE IN THE UNITED STATES.                              243

sociation of America” is Thomas B. Wales, Jr.,
Iowa City, Iowa; Editor, Gerrit S. Miller, Peter-
boro, N. Y. For the Dutch Frisian, H. Lang-
worthy, West Edmeston, N. Y., is Corresponding
Secretary and Agent; and animals are kept for
exhibition and sale by Mr. S. Hoxie, Whites-
town, N. Y.

Holstein Points.

BULLS—HEAD MODERATELY LONG, FINE AND CLEAN-CUT.

Forehead broad between eyes and slightly dishing..........    1

Face tapering, muzzle medium..............................    1

Cheek small................................................    2

Nostrils prominent and open................................    1

Horns short, moderately fine, curving forward..............    2

Ears fine and moderate in size.............................    1

Eyes large, bright and round................................    2

Neck clean-cut at throat, arched, long, strongly set on
shoulders, carrying the head on or above a line with the

back...................................................    3

Shoulders broad and flat on top, same height with hips.....    5

Chest very broad, deep and full ............................  10

Chine level with shoulder-blades and straight...............    2

Crops full and even with shoulders..........................    8

Barrel well rounded, well ribbed up to hips, broad and

deep, of good length and deep flank ...................    6

Back straight from shoulders to setting on of tail, broad and

flat.....................................................    4

H ips broad and flat, level with back........................    3

Rump long, straight, broad and flat, carrying width well

back................ ...................................    6

Quarters long, straight, deep, with thighs well rounded out­
side .....................................................
    6

Legs short, strong and straight, tapering, fine bone, broad

forearm, in position firm and wide apart................    6

Tail starting at a level with back, tapering, long and fine,

heavy switch............................................    2

Hide, skin soft, loose, mellow, of medium thickness, and

covered with a yellowish dandruff......................    8

Hair soft, fine and velvety..................................    4

Escutcheon first-class, first order............................    8

Teats, four well-developed teats, set well apart.............    2

Size, medium to large......................................    3

General appearance and symmetry..........................    4

Color distinctly black and white............................    o

Perfection..............................................100

COWS—HEAD MODERATELY LONG, FINE AND CLEAN-CUT.

Forehead broad between eyes and slightly dishing..........    1

Face tapering, muzzle medium.................. ...........    2

Cheek small.................................................    1

Nostrils prominent..........................................    1

Horns moderately fine, curving forward....................    2

Ears fine and moderate in size..............................    1

Eyes large, full, bright and mild............................    2

Neck clean-cut and fine at throat, rather long, rather slim,

well set on shoulders, carrying head on or above the line

of back..................................................    4

Chest broad, full and moderately deep......................    5

Shoulders lower than hips and moderately thick............    3

Chine level with shoulders and straight....................    1

Crops full and level with shoulders..........................    5

Barrel well rounded, well ribbed back, deep, good length,

increasing in size towards hips___ .....................    5

Back straight, broad and flat, with distinct depressions be-

tweed the vetebræ at the junction with chine............    3

Hips broad and flat, level with back........................    3

Rump long, broad, roomy and nearly level, carrying breadth

of hips well back....... ...............................    5

Quarters straight, long, deep, well developed, with thighs

full and round outside, but open and roomy for udder...    3
Legs short, clean, tapering, with fine bone, strong arm, in

position firm and wide apart, with feet of medium size,

round; solid and deep...................................    4

Tail set on level with back, long, slim, tapering, heavy

switch....................................................    2

Hide, skin soft, loose, mellow, of medium thickness, and

covered with yellowish dandruff........................    6

Hair soft, fine and velvety..................................    3

Escutcheon first-class, first order..........................    7

Udder carried high, extending well forward, well up be­
hind, with even quarters, large but not fleshy, covered

with soft, short and fine hair............................  14

Teats convenient size, squarely placed and wide apart......    3

Milk-veins very prominent, great length, branching, termi­
nating in large, clearly defined orifices..................
    5

Size, medium to large.......................................    6

General appearance and symmetry..........................    3

Color distinctly black and white in any proportion..........   o

Perfection.............................................100

In females, before first calf, the fourteen points given to
udder are not considered, and perfection is denoted by eighty-
six points.

Uncertainty of Records.There is so apt to be
in all reports an element of variance with the
real fact! Dr. Johnson actually saw the Cock-
lane ghost, although there was no ghost for the
doctor to see. On the track under the rules of
the National Association, records are not always
implicitly accepted. How much less when the
checks and guards there maintained, are absent!
The writer quoted to an agriculturist a certain
record, at which he smiled incredulously, and re­
plied : “ Would you bet on a race where the
other man drove his horse and held the watch?”
But, for all the croakings of pessimists, the
rogues are in the minority; and the returns of
milk and butter from different animals are in the
main reliable, and need discounting as little as
the record of any other class of facts. One
man will weigh a little more buttermilk and salt
with his butter than another.

The “Paster.”Experience seems to be teach­
ing that the pasturing of cattle, except where
land is very cheap and fertile, is too expensive a
way of feeding. A herd of fine cattle, dotting a
spacious expanse of verdure, each head bent low
to earth and cropping succulence to be afterward
elaborated into muscle, milk or fat, affords a pic­
turesque sight, one always dear to the artist and
the poet. But if, as seems proved, an acre of
good land, properly cultivated, will keep two
cows in the stable, the stable will win. Every
farmer and dairyman has his own theory, and don‘t
care to accept that of another; and the appetites
of cattle are not alike or uniform with them­
selves, any more than the appetites of men and
women. The race of lean and ill-favored kine
that eat up seven fat ones and then don‘t show
it, will still remain, though careful breeding will
reduce their number and their gauntness. The
use of Ensilage, which the reader will find treated
under Farming, opens a new and promising
field, and bids fair to inaugurate results not yet
anywhere obtained.


244

THE FRIEND OF ALL.

The Naming of Cattle.Queen Victoria is lately
reported as opposing a proposed railroad, because
a part of its line must be visible from her chosen
retreat. Sometimes it seems as if one must pre-
ier the picturesque to the useful. East and
West 23d or 50th Street seem so common­
place by the side of the beautiful names these
avenues might have borne; and the mathematical
regularity of Philadelphia, useful and convenient
as it is, excites a momentary longing for the
more natural irregularities of Old New York,
Brooklyn and Boston. So in naming animals. Why
should a cow which can be auctioned off for
more than $40,000 be called the “8th Duchess of
Geneva,” with such a pedigree as is printed on
page 244? The Dutch names on page 250, un­
couth and hard to pronounce as so many of them
are, seem to have an individuality and charm

that the others lack. If the prosaic numbers
must go in, they must; but let them be fastened
to an attractive surname. How pleasant these
names sound and read, from a single week‘s sale
at Kansas City in April 1883: Waterside Ida,
Mirth, Beauty 11th, Nightingale 15th, Carpie,
Dorianne, Fermillian, Lochnagar, Barbarian, Re­
mus, Blackthorn, Bluebeard 7th, Falstaff (we
hope this buH‘s performance may be better than
his prototype's, though his dispositions couldn‘t
be), Scotch Lassie, Lady Phyllis, Idlewild, etc.
etc. One English nobleman famous on the turf
— Palmerston, was it?—named his horses from
Homer's Iliad. Do, if you can, select for your
cow or your bull a name whose sound and sight
shall attract and not repel. Some men would
prefer Ondine, with a pound a day less at the pail,
to Bungtown 16th, with a pound more.

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