Home Veterinary Remedies, as Recommended by 19th and 20th Century Vets and Animal Doctors!
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The Peoples Horse, Cattle, Sheep and Swine book


The Farmers Practical Guide


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COOKING DEPARTMENT.                                                    15



Baking Powder for...................    22

Cream Tartar Biscuit................    23

Graham Gems........................    22

Parker House Rolls..................    22

Raised Biscuit........................    22

Warren Tea Cakes...................    32


Boston Brown Bread.................    22

Buckwheat Bread...................    22

Corn Bread, No. 1...................     21

Corn Bread, No. 2....................    21

Graham Bread.......................    22

Raised Bread, plain..................    22

Vienna Bread........................    21


Adrea’ Cup Cake.....................    25

Apple Jelly Cake.....................    25

Bath Cakes..........................    26

Boston Soft Crackers.................    26

Brandy Snaps........................    26

Chocolate............................    26

Cinnamon Cake......................    26

Citron Cake..........................    26

Cocoa-nut Cake......................    26

Crackers.............................    26

Cream Cakes.........................    25

Cream Crackers......................    27

Cross Buns..........................    26

Crullers.............................    26

Cup Cake............................    25

Delicate Cake........................    25

Drop Cake..........................    25

General Directions...................    25

Ginger Snaps........................    26

Jelly Cake............................    25

Jumbles..............................    26

Orange Cake.........................    25

Oyster Crackers....................   27

Marble Cake..........................    25

Mountain Pound Cake................    25

Pigeon Cove Berry Cake.............    26

Pound Cake, Mountain...............    25

Seed Cake............................    26

Silver Cake...........................    26

Soda Crackers........................   27

Sponge Cake.........................    25

Sugar Crackers.......................    27

Wedding Cake.......................    26


Almond Blanc Mange................    27

Blanc Mange, Lemon.............    27

Charlotte Russe......................    27

Custard...............................    27

Fruit Cream........................    27

Ice Cream...........................27, 28

Lemon Cream........................    27

Lemon Jelly.........................    28

Mock Cream..........................    28

Raspberry Cream....................    28

Vanilla Snow.........................    28

Wine Jelly..........................    28


Chocolate ........... ...............    28

Cocoa................................    28

Coffee................................    28

Tea..................................    28


Bologna Sausages ...................    20

Chicken Croquettes..................    19

Chicken Pie..........................    19

Chicken Salad........................    19

Devilled Ham........................    19

Hashed Meat.........................    20

Irish Stew...........................    19

Lobster Salad........................    19

Mayonnaise Sauce..................    19

Sausage Meat........................    20

Sausages.............................    20

Strasburg Potted Meat........... ...    19

Sweet Bread, Broiled................    19

Sweet Bread, Stewed.................    19

Veal Pot Pie.........................    19

Veal, Pressed........................    19


Baked Fish...........................    16

Boiled Fish..........................    16

Clam Chowder......,................    17

Clam Fritters........................    17

Fried Fish............................    16

Fish Chowder........................    16

Lobster..............................    17

Fried Oysters........................    17

Oyster Pie..........................    17

Pickled Oysters......................    17

Scalloped Oysters....................    17

Stewed Oysters.....................    16


Beef, Boiled...... ...................    17

Beef, Roast...........................    17

Beef Steak...........................    17

Beef Steak with Onions..............    17

Keep Fresh Meat, To...............     18

Mutton, Haricot......................    18

Mutton, Roast........................    18

Pickle Meat, To......................    18

Pork, Roast..........................    18

Veal, Roast...........................    18

Venison, Saddle of, Roast..... ......    18


Apple Pie............................    24

Cocoa-nut Cup Custard..............    35

Cocoa-nut Pie........................   24

Crumb Pie...........................    24

Custard Pie........................    24

Filling for Mince Pies................    24

Lemon Pie..........................    24

Mince Pie...........................    24

Orange Tartlets......................    24

Paste for Pies..................____    23

Paste to Cover Pies.................    23

Peach Pie............................    24

Puff Paste for Pies...................    23

Pumpkin Pie.........................    24

Rhubarb Pie.........................    25

Sliced Apple Pie.....................   24

Squash Pie...........................    24

Washington Pie......................    24


Chicken, Boiled......................    18

Chicken, Broiled........ ............    18

Chicken, Fricasseed..................    19

Chicken, Roasted....................    19

Ducks and Geese.....................    19

Pigeons, Boiled......................    19

Seasoning for Stuffing................    18

Turkey, Boiled.......................    18

Turkey, Hashed.....................    18

Turkey, Roast.......................    18


Baked Apple Pudding................    23

Bird's-nest Pudding..................    23

Cocoa-nut Pudding..................    23

Corn Starch Pudding.................    23

Cottage Pudding.....................    23

Green Gooseberry Pudding.........    22

Hard Times Pudding................    22

Lemon Pudding......................    22

Orange Pudding....................    22

Plum Pudding.......................    23

Potato Pudding......................    23

Rice or Sago Pudding................    23

Tapioca Pudding....................    23

Troy Pudding........................    23

Winter Pudding......................    23


Chocolate Sauce......................    23

Clear Sauce..........................    23

Hard Sauce..........................    23

Kennebago Sauce........... ........   23


Clam Soup..........................    16

Economical Soup.....................    16

Macaroni Soup......................    16

Oyster Soup.........................    16

Pea Soup, No. 1......................    16

Pea Soup, No. 2......................    16

Potato Soup..........................    16

Stock for Soups.....................    16

Tomato Soup.........................    16

Vermicelli Soup.....................    16


Cauliflower..........................    20

Macaroni.........................___    20

Potato Croquettes...................    20

Potatoes, Lyonnaise..................    20

Potatoes, Saratoga..................    20

Potatoes, Stewed.....................    20

Rice, Boiled..........................    20

Succotash............................    20

Summer Squash......................    20

Tomatoes, Baked....................    20

Tomatoes, Stewed...................    20

Turnips, Mashed.....................    20

Winter Squash.......................    20


Compressed Yeast....................    20

Hop Yeast...........................    21

Potato Yeast.........................    21

Stock or Malt Yeast..................    21




Stock for Soups.—Take lean beef and cold
water in the proportion of one pound of beef to
one quart of water, and place in a soup-kettle
over the fire; when it boils add one cup of cold
water; remove the scum ; then place over a mo­
derate fire and let it slowly simmer four or five
hours. This stock may be used for any soup in
which meat-broth is desired. It may be thick­
ened with barley, rice, macaroni or vermicelli, or
by adding canned tomatoes and serving with j
small cubes of toasted bread.

Tomato Soup.—One quart tomatoes; boil half
an hour with two quarts of water; rub through
a colander; add salt and pepper to taste;
rub together a large tablespoonful of butter
and a tablespoonful of flour or farina, then
add a little water, and stir into the soup; let it
boil up, and then serve. Canned tomatoes may
be used for this soup, and it can be made at the
shortest notice.

Pea Soup No. 1.Soak one quart dried split
peas in water over night; in the morning drain
them and add three quarts of water and one
pound of salt pork; boil slowly four or five
hours; add salt and pepper. Season with celery
if you like.

Pea Soup No. 2.—Beef three pounds, water
five quarts, six large carrots, six good turnips,
three large onions, salt sufficient; put it on a
good slow fire, let it boil three hours, then strain
all the broth from meat and vegetables, and then
add three pounds of split peas to the broth; set
it on a slow fire for two hours, stirring often, so
that all the peas will dissolve; take one pound
fresh sausage-meat, fried to a crisp, and fried
bread-crumbs; put all together, add a few fine
herbs, and serve hot.

Economical Soup.Put into a saucepan one
pound pieces of stale bread, three large onions
sliced, a small cabbage cut fine, a carrot and tur­
nip, and a small head of celery (or the remains
of any cold vegetables), a tablespoonful of salt,
a tablespoonful of pepper, a bunch of parsley, a
sprig of marjoram and thyme. Put these into
two quarts of any weak stock (the liquor in which
mutton has been boiled will do), and let them
boil for two hours; rub through a fine hair-sieve,
add a pint of new milk, boil up, and serve at

Macaroni Soup.—Four pounds of lean beef,
four quarts of water, carrot, turnip, onions; set
it for four hours till all mix together; strain it
all through a sieve; have two pounds of maca­
roni broken into pieces one inch long; put all
into a saucepan together, and let it boil for ten
minutes, and serve hot.

Vermicelli Soup. —Take four pounds of lamb,

removing all the fat, one pound of veal, a
slice of corned ham, and five quarts of water.
Cut up the meat, put in a quart of water, and let
it heat very gradually, all the while closely cov­
ered. In an hour add four quarts of boiling
water, and cook till the meat is in shreds. Sea­
son with salt, sweet herbs, a little Worcestershire
sauce, boil in the soup ten minutes, strain, and
put back on the fire. Then add a third of a
pound of vermicelli which has been boiled in
clear water till tender. Boil up once, and serve.

Oyster Soup. To each dozen or dish of
oysters put half pint of water, milk one
gill, butter half ounce, powdered crackers to
thicken; bring the oysters and water to a boil,
then add the other ingredients previously mixed
together, and boil from three to five minutes only.
Season with pepper and salt to taste.

Clam Soup.—For fifty clams take two table-
spoonfuls of butter, one quart of milk and a half
pint of water. Drain off the clam-liquor and put
over the fire with a few peppercorns, some cay­
enne pods, and a little mace and salt. Let it
boil ten minutes, put in the clams and boil half
an hour, keeping the pot closely covered ; then
add the milk, previously heated to scalding, not
boiling, in another vessel. Boil up again, and
add the butter, being careful the soup does not
burn. Serve without delay.

Potato Soup.—Peel a small measure of pota­
toes, boil till soft with a small piece of celery and
two or three peppercorns in salted water; strain
through a colander; add a small piece of butter.


Fish to be Boiled should be put into cold
water, sewed in a cloth if you have no fish-kettle.
Boil until the bones can be easily removed. It
should be served with drawn butter and capers.

Fish to be Fried should be rolled in flour,
meal or cracker-crumbs before being put into
the hot lard, butter or salt pork.

Fish to be Baked should be stuffed and sewed
up, then laid in a pan with a little water and a
few slices of salt pork under and around the fish.
Blue-fish, bass, cod and shad are suitable for

Fish Chowder.—Have the fish cut into steaks,
and a quarter pound of fat salt pork chopped.
j Place with some slices of onion in a saucepan
or kettle, and when browned have four pota­
toes sliced; lay a slice of fish upon the pork
and onions, then potatoes, then fish, until all is
in, when it should boil thirty minutes in three
quarts of water. Soda-crackers should be soaked
in one pint milk, and when the chowder is almost
done pour them into it.

Stewed Oysters. — Three quarts oysters well
drained; boil the liquor and skim it; add one

COOKING DEPARTMENT.                                                     17

quart milk, half dozen Boston crackers rolled
fine, pepper and salt if needed. Let it come to
a boil, and then put in the oysters and boil for
two or three minutes. Add a bit of butter before
the stew is served.

Fried Oysters.The oysters should be drained
and laid upon a cloth. Dip each oyster in
beaten tgg and then in pounded cracker or
corn-meal; then fry in butter and lard mixed.

Scalloped Oysters.Oysters should be laid in
a buttered pan with a thin layer of pounded
cracker, then a layer of oysters, and so on till the
dish is full. Season with pepper, mace, a tum­
bler full of the liquor, a little Sherry wine, or
more of the liquor poured over the dish; then
bake in a quick oven.

Clam Fritters.Take a dozen clams cut small,
a pint of milk and three eggs. Add the liquor
from the clams to the milk; beat up the eggs
and put in with salt and pepper, and flour
enough for thin batter; then put in the chopped
clams. Fry quickly in hot lard. A tablespoon-
ful will make a fritter.

Or, dip the whole clams in batter, and fry in
the same way.

Clam Chowder.—Fry a few slices of fat pork
crisp, and chop to pieces. Put some of these in
the bottom of a pot, and on them a layer of
clams; sprinkle on pepper and salt, and plenty
of butter; then put in a layer of chopped onions,
and then one of crackers split and wet in milk,
then a little of the fat in which the pork was
fried. Then a new succession in the same way,
until the pot is nearly full. Cover with water,
keep closely covered, and boil three quarters of
an hour. Drain off the liquor, put the chowder
into the tureen, and the liquor again into the
pot. Thicken this liquor with flour or pounded
crackers; add catsup, wine or spice to your taste,
and pour this gravy over the chowder in the tureen.
Pickled walnuts or butternuts go well with it.

Oyster Pie. — With a rich puff-paste of the
usual thickness line a pudding-dish, and fill with
crusts of dry bread or crackers, or a folded towel.
Make the top crust or cover of this mock-pie very
thick, heavily ornament the edges, and butter the
edges of the dish so that this heavy lid may be
easily lifted off. Then bake. Cook the oysters
as for a stew, but put in two eggs and a spoon­
ful of cracker-crumbs or flour. Stew them about
five minutes just before the pie is baked enough.
Lift the top crust, remove the towel or other tem­
porary contents, pour in the smoking oysters, and
serve hot.

Or, make a rich oyster stew, put in a baking-
dish and cover with puff-paste, and bake half an
hour in a moderate oven. On this plan the oys­
ters bake as long as the crust, and of course are
not as good as on the other plan.

Pickled Oysters. Take one hundred large
oysters, a pint of white-wine vinegar, some mace,
peppers and cloves, and a large red pepper. Put
the oysters, with their liquor, into a porcelain
kettle, salt to taste, and heat slowly till the oys­
ters nearly boil. Take out the oysters with a
skimmer, and let them cool in a jar. Add the
vinegar and spices to the liquor remaining in the
kettle. Let them fairly boil, and pour, scalding
hot, over the nearly cold oysters. Cover the jar
in which you have put them, and set away in a
cool place. Next day put the contents into glass
jars with tight tops, and keep them cool and

Lobster.—If you are to boil your own, take
a lively one, not too large, see that his claws are
well tied, and pop him into a pot of boiling
water into which you have put a handful of
salt. He may not like it at first, but will soon
lie still. Keep him till he turns the regulation
red, and lay him, face down, in a sieve. When
dry and cold, split open the body and tail, and
crack the claws to get the meat. Reject the
“ lady-fingers” and the head. Eat with Durkee‘s
or some other good dressing.

For Lobster Salad, see under Entrées.


Fresh meats should be put into boiling water
except for soups, when the water should be cold.

Salt meats should be thoroughly washed and
put into cold water.

Boiled meat is better for being left in the wa­
ter in which it has been boiled till cold.

Beef Boiled. The round is the best boiling
piece. Put the meat in the pot, with water
enough to cover it; let it boil very slow at first
—this is the great secret of making it tender;
take off the scum as it rises. From two to three
hours, according to size, is the rule for boiling.

Roast Beef. The sirloin is considered the
best for roasting. Spit the meat, pepper the top,
and baste it well while roasting with its own
dripping, and throw on a handful of salt. When
the smoke draws to the fire, it is near enough;
keep the fire bright and clear. From fifteen to
twenty minutes to the pound is the rule for

Beef Steak.The inside of the sirloin makes
the best steak; cut about three quarters of an
inch thick. Have the gridiron hot, put on the
meat and set it over a good fire of coals ; turn
them often. From eight to ten minutes is the
rule for broiling.

Beef Steak with Onions.Prepare a rump steak
by pounding it till quite tender; season with
salt, pepper and fresh butter. Put in the steak
and fry it; when brown on one side turn it
over; do not let it scorch. When nicely done


18                                                      THE FRIEND OF ALL.

take it up, put a little flour over the steak, then |
add gradually a cup of hot water, seasoned with
more salt and pepper if necessary ; then put the
water over the fire and boil again, and pour over
the steak.

Peel two dozen onions; put them on to boil
with about two quarts of water an hour before
the steak is put on to fry. When the steak is
done, cut them up, put them in the frying-pan,
season well with salt, pepper and butter, sprinkle
with flour, stir all well together, place over the
fire; stir often to prevent scorching; when they
are a little brown and soft, turn them over the

Mutton Roast The loin, haunch and saddle
of mutton and lamb must be done the same
as beef. All other parts must be roasted with a
quick, clear fire ; baste it when you put it down, I
and dredge it with a little flour just before you
take it up. A leg of mutton of six pounds will
require one hour to roast before a quick fire.

Mutton Haricot Take a loin of mutton, cut
it into small chops, season it with ground pep­
per, allspice and salt, let it stand a night, and then
fry it. Have good gravy well seasoned with
flour, butter, catsup and pepper, if necessary.
Boil turnips and carrots, cut them small, and add
to the mutton stewed in the gravy, with the
yelks of hard-boiled eggs, and forced-meat-balls.
Pork RoastTake a leg of pork and wash it
clean; cut the skin in squares; make a stuffing
of grated bread, sage, onion, pepper and salt,
moistened with the yelk of an egg. Put this un­
der the skin of the knuckle, and sprinkle a little
powdered sage into the rind where it is cut; rub
the whole surface of the skin over with a feather
dipped in sweet-oil. Eight pounds will require
about three hours to roast it.

The Shoulder, Loin or Chine, and Spare-
rib are roasted in the same manner.

Saddle of Venison Roast — The saddle is the
best piece for a small roast. Soak in water
over night; remove all the skins. Insert small
pieces of pork, then wrap the piece in a cloth
saturated with vinegar, and set away for a day.
Lay some slices of salt pork in the pan with
some dry bread-crusts, salt the meat thoroughly
and put into the pan, add a little water, half a
cup of cream, baste very often, and roast in a
quick oven.

Veal Roast — Pursue about the same course
as in roasting pork. Roast before a brisk fire till
it comes to a brown color; then lay it down,
baste it well with good butter and, when near
done, with a little flour.

Fresh Meat — To KEEP A Week OR Two IN
Summer.—Farmers or others living at a distance
from butchers can keep fresh meat very nicely
for a week or two by putting it into sour milk

or butter­milk, placing it in a cool cellar. The
bone or fat need not be removed. Rinse well
when used. In cooking, four pounds of beef lose
one pound by boiling, one pound five ounces by
roasting, and one pound three ounces by baking:
four pounds of mutton lose fourteen ounces by
boiling, one pound six ounces by roasting, and
one pound four ounces by baking.

To Pickle Meat in One Day. Get a tub nearly
full of rain or other soft water, put two pieces
of thin wood across it and set the beef on them
at about the distance of one inch from the
water. Heap as much salt as will stand on the
beef and let it remain twenty-four hours, then
take off the beef and boil it, and you will find it
is completely impregnated by the salt, the water
having drawn it through the meat.


Stuffing, Seasoning for. One pound of salt,
dried and sifted, half an ounce of ground
white pepper, two ounces of dried thyme, one
ounce of dried marjoram, and one ounce of nut­
meg. When this seasoning is used, parsley only
is required to be chopped in sufficient quantity
to make the stuffing green. The proportions arc
a half pound of bread-crumbs, three eggs.
a quarter pound of suet, a half ounce of
seasoning, and the peel of half a lemon grated.

Turkey Boiled.Clean the turkey, fill the crop
with stuffing, and sew it up. Put it over the
fire in water enough to cover it; let it boil
slowly ; take off all the scum. When this is
done, it should only simmer till it is done. Put
a little salt into the water, and dredge the turkey
in flour before boiling.

Turkey Roast.—A good-sized turkey should be
roasted two and a half or three hours—very
slowly at first. If you wish to make plain stuf-
fing, pound a cracker or crumble some bread
very fine, chop some raw salt pork very fine, sift
some sage (and summer savory or sweet marjo­
ram, if you have them in the house and fancy
them), and mould them all together, seasoned
with a little pepper. An egg worked in makes
the stuffing cut better.

Turkey Hashed.Take meat from boiled fowls,
chop fine, put in saucepan, with seasoning to
suit taste. Serve on toast.

Chicken Boiled.—A chicken should be boiled the
same as a turkey, only it will take less time—
about thirty-five minutes is sufficient. Use the
same stuffing, if any, and serve up with parsley or

Chicken Broiled. Slit them down the back

and season with pepper and salt; lay them on a

clear fire of coals, the inside next the fire till

half done, then turn and broil to a fine brown

I color. Broil about thirty-five minutes.

COOKING DEPARTMENT.                                                    19

Chickens Fricaseed. Take two large young
chickens, cut in small pieces, put in cold water
for one hour to take all the blood out, then put
in saucepan to parboil for half an hour, then take
from saucepan, drained well; have ready one
quart good fresh cream, two ounces good butter,
one ounce of flour, all well mixed together; put
in saucepan with the chickens ; put on the fire to
boil tender; season with pepper and salt. Serve
with toast bread in the bottom of the dish.

Chicken RoastChickens should be managed
in roasting the same as turkeys, only that they
require less time. From an hour to an hour
and a half is long enough.

To roast fowls the fire must be quick and
clear. If smoky it will spoil both their taste
and looks. Baste frequently, and keep a white
paper pinned on the breast till it is near done.

Ducks and Geese Roast.Take sage, wash and
pick it, and an onion; chop them fine, with
pepper and salt, and put them in the belly ; let
the goose be clean picked, and wiped dry with a
cloth, inside and out; put it down to the fire,
and roast it brown. Ducks are dressed in the
same way. For wild ducks, teal, pigeons and
other wild fowl use only pepper and salt, with
gravy in the dish.

Pigeons Boiled.Boil them about fifteen min­
utes by themselves ; then boil a piece of bacon.
Serve with slices of bacon and melted butter.


Mayonnaise Sauce. The yelks of two eggs
well beaten; one teaspoonful salt; one table-
spoonful mustard; about half a pint sweet-
oil poured in dry by drop, beating all the time.
Thin the whole with lemon-juice or vinegar as
prepared. A little cayenne pepper may be used.
This dressing is suited for chicken, lobster or
other salad.

Chicken Salad.To one chicken cut up in small
squares (light and dark meat may be used)
take three quarters of the bulk in chopped celery;
for the dressing, the yelk of one raw egg well
beaten; add the oil a drop or two at a time, beat­
ing well. Any amount of oil may be used in
this way so long as the mixture remains stiff.
Then add salt, mustard, pepper and vinegar to
taste. If lettuce is used, the pieces must be well
dried and broken, not cut.

Lobster Salad.Take inside of large lobster,
mince fine, take yelk of two eggs boiled hard
and mashed fine, with four tablespoonfuls of
sweet-oil; pepper, salt, vinegar and mustard to
taste ; mix well; add celery or lettuce to taste;
then, when serving, garnish with hard boiled eggs.

Chicken Croquettes.Take a chicken thoroughly
boiled and chop fine ; add half a cup cracker-

crumbs ; season with salt, pepper, chopped pars­
ley ; add two cups drawn butter or chicken-broth ;
make into croquettes ; fry to a delicate brown,
and serve on a napkin.

Sweetbreads (Stewed). — Wash, then parboil,
cut into small pieces, stew in a little water un­
til tender; add a teaspoonful of flour, a piece of
butter, and then boil up once. Serve with toast.

Sweetbreads (Broiled).Parboil, rub with but­
ter, and broil; turn often, and dip in butter that
they may not become dry.

Pressed Veal.—Boil three pounds of veal un­
til very tender; remove from the kettle and
chop fine. Season with salt and pepper; add
three quarters of a pound of balied ham chopped.
Let the hot broth be poured over the whole and
well mixed in a bowl or mould, and then set
away until cold and in shape.

Devilled Ham.Take a pint of chopped ham
with a little fat; mix a dessert­spoonful of mus­
tard with a little water, add it to the ham with
a spoonful of butter, and put in a pan over the
fire ; stir till heated through ; pour in a bowl or
mould, and set away to cool.

Chicken Pie.Take one pair of good young
chickens, cut in small pieces, season with pepper
and salt and small strips of salt pork, put in
saucepan with water to cover it, boil for half an
hour, add flour and butter to thicken the gravy;
have ready a large dish lined with paste ; put all
in the dish, and cover with a good rich paste.
Bake for half an hour.

Veal Pot-Pie.Take two pounds of best veal,
cut in small pieces, half pound of salt pork
sliced thin, four quarts of cold water; pepper
and salt all, put on the fire; after boiling for one
hour have three pounds of light bread dough,
pick small pieces, say one-ounce pieces, put in
saucepan with the veal and pork, and let it boil
for twenty minutes. Serve as soon as taken
from the fire.

Strasburg Potted Meat.Take one and a half
pounds of the rump of beef, cut into dice,
put it in an earthen jar, with quarter pound
of butter ; tie the jar close up with paper, and
set over a pot to boil; when nearly done, add
cloves, mace, allspice, nutmeg, salt and cayenne
pepper to taste ; then boil till tender, and let
it get cold ; pound the meat with four anchovies
mashed and boned, add a quarter pound of
oiled butter, work it well together with the gravy,
warm a little, and add cochineal to color; then
press into small pots, and pour melted mutton
suet over the top of each.

Irish Stew.—Take four pounds of good breast
of fat mutton, cut in small pieces; two large white
onions ; ten large potatoes, well peeled and sliced;
put all in saucepan together, with fine herbs,
pepper and salt to suit—a little salt pork is a



good addition—half pound flour, quarter pound
good fresh butter, well rubbed together, and let
it boil for one hour and have it well cooked.

Hashed Meat.Take two pounds of fat corned
beef, well boiled and cold; one pound of
well boiled potatoes, cold; one large white
onion ; put in chopping-tray, mince it fine, put
all in saucepan together, add two ounces butter,
pepper and salt to taste; add boiling water
to make it soft; set it on a slow fire, stirring it
often. When well stewed, serve hot. It makes
a fine relish for breakfast.

Bologna Sausages. Take thirty pounds of
chopped meat, eight ounces fine salt, two and
a half ounces of pepper, two teacups of sage, and
one and a half cups of sweet marjoram, passed
through a fine sieve, or, if preferred, thyme and
summer savory can be substituted for the latter.

Sausages (Bologna)—Take equal quantities of
bacon fat and lean beef, veal, pork, and beef
suet; chop them small, season with pepper, salt,
etc., with sweet herbs and sage rubbed fine. Have
well washed intestines, fill and prick them ; boil
gently for an hour, and lay on straw to dry.

Sausage-Meat.Take two pounds of lean meat,
one pound of fat pork, chop fine, and mix
with two tablespoonfuls of black pepper, one of
cloves, seven of powdered sage and five of salt.


Vegetables as a rule are improved by lying in
cold water a while before being put into boiling
water. Green corn and peas require to be cooked
from 15 to 30 minutes ; asparagus, 20 to 40 min­
utes ; spinach, 10 to 20 minutes; parsnips, 30
minutes to 1 hour ; cabbage, 45 minutes ; beets,
1 hour to 2 hours ; lima-beans (large), 40 min­
utes ; string-beans, 1 hour to 2 hours.

Succotash.Take one dozen ears of corn, cut
the grains from the cob, add one quart of lima
beans, and mix with the corn ; put it on to boil
in three quarts of water with one pound of pork
cut; add black pepper and salt to taste. When
the water has boiled away to one half the original
quantity, serve in a tureen as soup.

Baked Tomatoes.Wash the tomatoes, take out
the seed, make a dressing of crumbs of bread
and onions chopped fine; add salt, butter and
pepper. Bake and serve hot.

Stewed Tomatoes.Scald the tomatoes with
hot water, take off the skins, put them in ah
earthen vessel, strain off the water, and add but­
ter, salt and pepper to taste.

Mashed Turnips.Wash turnips, boil well, take
them up in the colander, press out all the
water, mash very fine; season with salt, butter
and sugar. Serve hot with trimmings.

Macaroni Boiled.Take two pounds, break in
small pieces, put in warm water to steep one

hour, drain off, put in saucepan with two quarts
fresh cream, with grated cheese ; season with
red pepper.

Rice Boiled.—To boil rice take one cupful and
wash it three times, letting it stand a few mo­
ments in the third water; put it then into three
quarts of boiling water with a little salt; after
boiling twenty minutes pour into a colander;
then serve.

Saratoga Potatoes.Peel and put whole into
cold water. After remaining an hour slice
very thin and throw into cold water for half
an hour, then drain and dry. Throw the slices
into a kettle of boiling lard, a handful at a time.
As soon as they begin to brown, skim them out
and sprinkle a little salt over them.

Stewed Potatoes.Set two ounces of butter in
a pan over the fire ; when melted put the sliced
or chopped boiled potatoes into it, adding a little
milk or cream and stirring for about ten minutes.

Lyonnaise Potatoes.To a quart of cold sliced
potatoes, placed in a pan, add two tablespoon-
fuls of butter and a little sliced onion, and fry
brown; when done, salt and pepper and add a
little butter.

Potato Croquettes.—Mash a quart of boiled
potatoes, add salt, pepper and butter, mix in
also two beaten eggs; make into rolls or balls,
and fry in hot lard. A little milk may be used
if too stiff.

Cauliflower .with Cream Sauce.Boil the cauli­
flower, which should be washed, trimmed and
tied in a piece of coarse net or muslin. The
water should be salted and the cauliflower placed
stem end up. Prepare in a saucepan one cup
of scalding milk, one tablespoonful of corn-starch
wet with cold water, two tablespoonfuls of butter;
pepper and salt to taste. Drain the cauliflower,
remove the net and place in a deep dish, flower
end up ; pour over the boiling sauce.

Winter Squash.—Pare and take out the seeds,
cut into pieces, place in cold water for about
one hour; boil until soft; drain off the water
thoroughly and mash, stirring in a spoonful of
butter, then salt and pepper.

Summer Squash. — Quarter summer squashes,
place in cold water ten minutes ; boil until ten­
der (about twenty minutes), remove the skins,
mash, pressing all the water out; add butter, salt
and pepper ; serve hot. Some persons pare the
squashes before boiling.


Recipes in this department may be proportion­
ally reduced whenever a smaller quantity only is

Compressed Yeast.This yeast, so extensively
used in Europe, is obtained by straining the
common yeast in breweries and distilleries until



a moist mass is obtained, which is then placed in
hair bags, and the rest of the water pressed out
until the mass is nearly dry. It is then sewed up
in strong linen bags for transportation. It will
keep a long time, and is very highly esteemed by
bakers. See Vienna Bread.

Hop Yeast—Boil nine ounces of hops with three
pails of water; put nine pounds of good flour in
a tub, and strain enough of the hop-water over
it to make it into a stiff paste; beat it up thor­
oughly ; strain in the rest of the hop-water into
the paste; let it stand until lukewarm ; then add
four and a half quarts stock yeast. It will rise
one to three inches, but do not disturb it until it

Stock or Malt Yeast—Boil twelve ounces of good
hops with four pails of water for about five min­
utes ; then strain off enough of the liquid among
eight pounds of good sifted flour in a tub to ren­
der it into a stiff paste, working it up thoroughly
with a clean stick; then add the rest of the li­
quid to the paste; let it stand till lukewarm, and
pulverize any remaining lumps with your fingers.
Now add about eight pounds malt and six quarts
stock yeast; allow it to work in a warm place
till it rises and falls again, which will occupy
from eight to twelve hours; strain through a
hair sieve and stand in a cool place. In warm
weather four gallons cold water might be added
to the above previous to stocking it away.

Potato YeastPare and boil six potatoes and
mash through a colander; mix with six table-
spoonfuls of flour; pour on this a quart of boil­
ing water (the water in which the potatoes were
boiled is the best), add half a teacupful of sugar,
a tablespoonful of salt; when cool mix in a tea-
cupful of home-made yeast or half as much brew-
er‘s yeast.


To make good bread, three things are neces­
sary—good flour, good yeast and careful baking.

Corn-Meal Bread, No. 1.Take two quarts of corn
meal, with about a pint of (thin) bread-sponge,
and water enough to wet it; mix in about half
a pint of wheat flour and a tablespoonful of salt;
let it rise and then knead well the second time.
Bake one and a half hours.

Corn-Meal Bread, No. 2.Mix two quarts of new
corn meal with three pints of warm water; add
one tablespoonful of salt, two tablespoonfuls of
sugar and one large tablespoonful of hop yeast:
let it stand in a warm place five hours to rise;
then add one and a half teacupfuls of wheat flour
and a half pint of warm water. Let it rise again
one and a half hours, then pour into a pan well
greased with sweet lard, and let it rise a few min­
utes. Then bake in a moderately hot oven one
and a half hours.

Vienna Bread.—The proportions of Vienna
bread, confessedly inferior to none in the world,
are: Flour, one hundred pounds; water and
milk, nine gallons; salt, six pounds four ounces;
pressed yeast, eighteeen pounds twelve ounces.
According to Prof. Horsford, good fresh mid­
dlings flour will compare favorably with the av­
erage Hungarian flour used in Vienna. The
fresh pressed yeast is obtained by skimming the
froth from beer-mash in active fermentation.
This contains the upper yeast, which must be re­
peatedly washed with cold water until only the
pure white yeast settles clear from the water.
This soft, tenacious mass, after the water has
been drawn off, is gathered into bags and sub­
jected to hydraulic pressure, until there remains
a semi-solid, somewhat brittle, dough-like sub­
stance, still containing considerable water. This
is the pressed yeast, which will keep for eighty
days in summer, and much longer on ice. For
use it should be fresh and sweet.

The mixing is commenced by emptying the
flour-sacks into a zinc-lined trough about two
and a half feet wide and eight feet long, half
round in form. Then with a pail holding about
five gallons, equal parts of milk and water are
poured, and left to stand until the mixture at­
tains the temperature of the room, between 700
and 8o° Fahr. It is then poured into one end of
the trough and mixed by the bare hand with a
small portion of the flour to form a thin emul­
sion. The pressed yeast is next crumbled finely
in the hands, and added in the proportion of
three and a half ounces to every three quarts of
liquid, and then one ounce of salt in same pro­
portion is intermingled through the mass. The
trough is now covered and left undisturbed for
three quarters of an hour, and after this the rest
of the flour is incorporated with the mass in the
above-named proportions.

The mass of dough, being allowed to rest for
two and a half hours, becomes a smooth, tena­
cious, puffed mass of yellowish color, which yields
to indentation without rupture and is elastic. It
is now weighed into pound masses, and each
lump is cut by machinery into twelve small
pieces, each three quarters of an inch in thick­
ness. Of each one of these the corners are
brought together in the center and pinched to se­
cure them. Then the lump is reversed and
placed on a long dough-board for further fer­
mentation, until the whole batch is ready for the
oven. Before being introduced into the latter,
the rolls are again reversed and restored to their
original position, having considerably increased
in volume, to be still further enlarged in the oven
to at least twice the size of the original dough.
In the oven they do not touch each other, and
the baking occupies about fifteen minutes. To

22                                                      THE FRIEND OF ALL.

glaze the surface they are touched in the process 1
of baking with a sponge dipped in milk, which,
besides imparting to them a smooth surface, in­
creases the brilliancy of the slightly reddish cin­
namon color and adds to the grateful aroma of
the crust.

Graham Bread.—Graham flour, three quarts;
warm water, one quart; home-made yeast, one
gill; molasses, one gill; salt, one tablespoonful;
soda, one even teaspoonful. Let it rise slowly
over night; if sufficiently light, pour into pans
and bake about one hour and a half.

Raised Bread (Plain).Three quarts flour; put
two quarts in pan and mix with three pints hot
water ; make into a sponge with a quarter cake of
compressed yeast. In the morning knead in one
quart of flour and set to rise. When light, mix
again and make into loaves and bake.

Boston Brown Bread.Take one hundred pounds
of Indian meal, fifty pounds rye meal, and ten
pounds flour ; sift and intermix together in the
trough; strain in four gallons molasses, two gal­
lons ferment or yeast; dissolve one pound soda
and four pounds salt in water and add that. Now
add water enough to mix all rather stiff, mixing
well and breaking all lumps. Now mix in water
enough to form a batter sufficiently thin to re­
main even on top; allow it to stand two or three
hours after mixing before putting it into the
pans and oven, then bake from six to ten hours
in a slow oven.

Buckwheat-Meal Bread.To two quarts of sifted
buckwheat meal add hot water enough to wet
the same ; when sufficiently cooled, add one tea-
spoonful or more of salt, half a pint of yeast, and
half a teaspoonful of molasses; then add wheat
flour enough to make it into loaves (it should be
kneaded well); and when risen light, bake or
steam it three or more hours. If this should get
sour while rising, add a teaspoonful of sugar and
a little saleratus, dissolved in water. For bread
from Indian meal proceed in the same way, us­
ing it instead of buckwheat meal.


Baking-Powder for Biscuit.Bicarbonate of soda,
four pounds; cream of tartar, eight pounds.
These ingredients should be thoroughly dried
and well mixed, and put up proof against damp­
ness. Use about three teaspoonfuls to each
quart of flour, mix up with cold water or milk,
and put it into the oven at once.

Cream-Tartar Biscuit.Work in three pounds
sifted flour with two ounces butter; add two
ounces cream tartar; dish the middle and pour
in one pint milk and one pint water, previously
adding one ounce soda to the milk ; mix all up
briskly, but don't make it too stiff. Flatten it
out; cut with a biscuit-cutter; place them on

buttered tins close together and bake in a quick

Raised BiscuitOne quart milk, four potatoes
boiled and mashed through a colander, six ounces
lard, four teaspoonfuls sugar, one of salt, a small
cup of yeast; mix all together with flour to
make a stiff batter over night; in the morning
add more flour (but not a stiff dough), set in a
cool place to rise, and about two hours before
you wish to bake them, roll out, cut in small
cakes and put into pans.

Parker-House Rolls.Two quarts flour, one table-
spoonful sugar, half a teaspoonful salt, piece of
butter size of an egg, half a teacupful of yeast,
one pint scalded milk. Put the flour, butter, su­
gar and salt in a bowl; make a hole in the flour;
pour in the milk a little warm, add the yeast and
mix in nearly all the flour; let it stand till morn­
ing ; knead in the rest of the flour and let it rise
slowly till two o‘clock; roll out about an inch
thick, cut into cakes ; spread a little butter on
each and fold over, put in pans to rise till light
enough to bake for supper.

Graham Gems.—One quart Graham flour; stir
to a stiff batter with cold water; add salt, put
into hot buttered gem-pans and bake quickly.

Warren Tea-Cake.Two cups flour, one egg, one
teaspoonful soda, a small piece of butter, a little
sugar, a little salt; beat the egg in a cup and fill
it up with milk; pour into the flour after the
other ingredients are stirred in. Small pans or
a gem-pan should be used, and the cakes should
be brought hot to the table and eaten with but­


A pudding to be boiled should be put in a tin
pudding-boiler; close tightly, place in boiling
water, where it must remain from four to five
hours. Replenish with boiling water.

Green Gooseberries make a nice pudding by sti
ring a pint of them into a pint of batter, and
either baking or boiling.

Hard Times Pudding.Half pint of molasses or

syrup, half pint water, two teaspoonfuls of soda,

one teaspoonful of salt, flour enough to make a

batter; boil in a bag three hours. Eat it with

! sauce.

Lemon Pudding.—Melt six ounces of butter, pour
it over the same quantity of powdered loaf-sugar,
I stirring it well till cold, then grate the rind of a
large lemon, and add it with eight eggs well
beaten and the juice of two lemons; stir the
whole till it is completely mixed together, and
bake the pudding with a paste round the dish.

Orange Pudding.Take one pound of butter, one

pound of sugar, ten eggs, the juice of two

oranges, boil the peel, then pound it fine and

I mix it with the juice. Add the juice of one

COOKING DEPARTMENT.                                                    23

lemon, a wineglassful of brandy, wine or rose-
water. If you do not have the fruit, add the ex­

Potato Pudding.—Baked potatoes skimmed and
mashed, twelve ounces; suet, one ounce; cheese,
grated fine, one ounce ; milk, one gill. Mix the
potatoes, suet, milk, cheese and all together; if
not of a proper consistence, add a little water.
Bake in an earthen pot.

Plum Pudding.—Pound six crackers, and soak
them over night in milk enough to cover them,
then add three pints of milk, four or five eggs,
half a pound of raisins ; spice with nutmeg and
sweeten with sugar and molasses. Bake about
two hours.

Ground Rice or Sago Pudding.—Boil a large spoon­
ful of it, heaped, in one pint of milk with lemon-
peel and cinnamon ; when cold, add sugar and
nutmeg and four eggs well beaten.

Tapioca Pudding.—Pick and mash a coffee-cup
full of tapioca, and pour upon it one pint boiling
milk; after standing half an hour, add another
pint of cold milk, with sugar and raisins if you

Winter Pudding.—Take the crust of baker‘s loaf
of bread and fill it with plums, boil it in milk
and water.

Troy Pudding.—One cup of milk, half cup mo­
lasses, half cup butter, one cup chopped raisins,
three and a half cups flour; salt and spice to
taste, and boil five hours. Serve with cold or
hot sauce.

Cottage Pudding.One cup sugar, one cup milk,
two cups flour, three tablespoons of melted but­
ter, two teaspoons cream tartar, one teaspoon
soda, one egg ; steam or bake; serve with cream
or sauce.

Bird's-Nest Pudding.Mix two large tablespoon­
fuls of flour with a pint of milk ; add two well-
beaten eggs and a little salt; pare and core six
large apples, butter a pudding-dish, set the apples
in, and pour over the batter. Bake three quar­
ters of an hour and serve with sweet sauce. .

Baked Apple Pudding.Pare and quarter four
large apples, boil them tender with a rind of a
lemon in so little water that when done no water
may remain, beat them quite fine in a mortar,
add the crumb of a small roll, quarter pound
butter melted, the yelks of five and whites of
three eggs, juice of half a lemon, sugar to your
taste, beat all well together, all in paste.

Corn Starch Pudding.—Five tablespoonfuls of
corn-starch to one quart of milk, dissolve the
starch in a part of the milk, heat the remainder
of the milk to nearly boiling, having salted it a
little, then add the dissolved starch to the milk,
boil three minutes, stirring it briskly ; allow it to
cool, and then thoroughly mix with it three eggs,
well beaten, with three tablespoonfuls of sugar ;

flavor to taste and bake it half an hour. This
pudding ranks second to none.

Cocoanut Pudding. —To a large grated cocoanut
add the whites of six eggs, half pound of sugar,
six ounces of butter, half a wineglassful of rose-
water, and bake in or out of paste.


Clear Sauce.—Boil a pint of water and a large
cup of sugar until clear and a little thickened;
flavor with wine or fruit-juice.

Chocolate Sauce for Cottage or Plain Pudding.One
coffee-cup of boiled milk, two tablespoonfuls of
chocolate mixed with the yelk of an egg, cold
milk, a little sugar; stir into the boiling milk.

Kennebago Sauce.—Two cups powdered sugar,
two tablespoonfuls butter, one cup boiling water,
one glass sherry wine, nutmeg or cinnamon to
taste. Rub the butter into the sugar, add hot
water, then spice and wine. Cover tightly to
keep in the strength of the wine, and set for
twenty minutes in a saucepan of boiling water.
Stir and send hot to the table.

Hard Sauce.—To two cups powdered sugar take
half cup butter slightly warmed, so that it can
be easily worked up with the sugar. When well
mixed beat in half a teaspoonful nutmeg, add a
little sherry wine or lemon-juice, put on a plate
and set away to cool.


Paste for Pies.—Rub together four pounds flour
and four pounds of lard, with salt sufficient; add
just water enough to mix the dough. It may be
better to put flour on the bench, make a set of
it, adding the salt, lard, water, and stirring to­

Paste to Cover Pies.—Mix together one and a
half pounds of lard or butter with two pounds
flour, with sufficient salt and water to mix.
Cranberry pies should have strips of puff-paste
across the top, the edges wet, and a strip of puff-
paste placed around the rim, keeping this strip a
quarter of an inch outside of the edge of the
plate, as it will contract while baking.

Puff-Paste Short for Pies.—Mix together four
pounds flour, one and a half pounds butter, add
four eggs, a little salt and one pint water or a
little more ; work all to a smooth paste, spread
out with the hand, put one and a half pounds
more butter in the middle, fold the dough over
the butter so as to cover it, let it stand five min­
utes, sift flour over the paste and on the slab,
roll out to the length of seven feet and three feet
wide (for half this quantity one half of these di­
mensions will be required). Fold it over and
turn so that the sides will face you, repeating
the rolling twice, when the paste will be fit for
use. For all kinds of fruit pies have your fruit

24                                                      THE FRIEND OF ALL.

sweetened to your taste, and then put in a short
crust. Bake in a hot oven.

Peach Pie.—Pare but do not stone ripe peaches;
put them into pans well lined with paste, sweeten
well, cover with pastry and bake. Eat fresh, not
hot. Powdered sugar can be shaken over them.

Squash Pie.To one pint of squash when boiled,
mashed and strained, add two cups milk, one
cup of sugar, four eggs well beaten, half a tea-
spoonful of ginger and a little mixed mace and

Pumpkin Pie.Stew the pumpkin dry, and make
it like squash pie, only season rather higher. In
the country, where this real Yankee pie is pre­
pared in perfection, ginger is almost always used,
with other spices. There, too, part cream, in­
stead of milk, is mixed with the pumpkin, which
gives a richer flavor.

Washington Pie.One cup of sugar, third of a
cup of butter, half a cup of sweet milk, one and
a third cups of flour, one egg, half a teaspoonful
of soda, one of cream of tartar, lemon flavor.
Grease two round tins, and put in the above.
Bake until done. Then put it on a dinner-plate,
spread with nice apple­sauce, or sauce of any
kind ; then another layer of cake on top. It is
nice without sauce, but sauce improves it.

Crumb Pie.Mince any cold meat very finely,
season it to taste, and put it into a pie-dish;
have some finely grated bread-crumbs, with a
little salt, pepper and nutmeg, and pour into the
dish any nice gravy that may be at hand; then
cover it over with a thick layer of the bread-
crumbs, and put small pieces of butter over the
top. Place it in the oven till quite hot.

Custard for Pies.Put twelve eggs, half pound
sugar, half ounce salt, and a little extract of
lemon into a bowl, beat well together, add two
quarts milk and strain.

Lemon Pies.Rub together one pound butter
and one and a half pounds flour, with cold water
sufficient to make a good stiff dough to bottom
your plates with, rimming them around with
puff-paste, and fill with the following mixture :
put into a bowl the juice of three lemons, the
grated rind of one with one and a half pounds of
finely powdered sugar and nine eggs. Mix
thoroughly, and fill your plates with the mixture;
bake in a moderate oven.

Another filling.Three lemons, six eggs, three
quarter pounds sugar, half pint milk, with salt
and nutmeg. Mix as the last.

Another without Lemons.One pound sugar,
half pound flour, ten eggs, half pint milk,
quarter ounce tartaric acid, a little lemon essence
and salt.

Frosting for Lemon Pies.—Four ounces pul­
verized sugar, whites of six eggs beaten to a stiff
froth and the sugar gradually added to it; inter­

mix thoroughly, cover the pies, top them off
with this frosting, run them into a moderate
oven and bake them to a nice brown.

Lemon Pie with Three Crusts.—A layer of crust, a
layer of lemon sliced fine, a little sugar, layer of
crust again, and sugar and lemon again, then
the upper crust.

Another Way.—One cup sugar, one cup
sweet milk, one egg, one and a half lemons, the
grated peel and juice, one tablespoonful flour;
then, after baking, the white of an egg beaten,
sweetened and put on the top, then set in the
oven and browned.

Mince Pies.—Meat one pound, suet three and a
quarter pounds, currants, raisins and plums two
pounds, one glass brandy or wine, allspice, cinna­
mon and cloves to your taste, sugar sufficient to
sweeten. Bake in a short crust.

Mince Pies, Filling for.Boil three pounds of
chopped meat, clear of bones and tough pieces,
chop fine ; peel, core and chop nine pounds of
good apples, add four and a half pounds brown
sugar, three and a half quarts molasses, three
ounces each of nutmeg, cassia, cloves and all­
spice, three pounds raisins, one and a half pounds
currants, one and a half pints brandy, one gill
cider, three quarter pound salt. Mix all the
ingredients together in a vessel, omitting the
apples and brandy; intermix well together; then
add them and reduce to the proper consistency
with water. Cover with a cloth, tying it down
tightly to prevent evaporation, and set away in a
cool place for use.

Orange Tartlets.Two oranges, juice of both
and the grated peel of one; three quarter cups of
sugar, two tablespoonfuls of butter, juice of
half a lemon, one teaspoonful of corn-starch
wet with lemon and a little water. Beat to a
rich cream and bake in small paste-shells.

Apple Pie.—Stew apples, green or ripe, after
having pared and cored them; mash, sweeten,
and while hot stir in a teaspoonful of butter for
each pie, and season with nutmeg. When cool,
fill your crust, and crossbar with strips of paste,
or leave entirely uncovered, and bake. Eat hot
or cold, with powdered sugar if you like.

Sliced-Apple Pie.—Pare, core and slice tart ripe
winter apples, line your dish with a good crust,
lay in a stratum of fruit, sprinkle light-brown
sugar thickly over it, put in a half-dozen cloves,
and then another stratum of fruit, and so on till
you have the thickness you want. Cover with
crust and bake. Serve with powdered sugar
sifted over the top.

Cocoanut Pie.Take one pound grated cocoa-
nut, half a pound powdered sugar, one quart un­
skimmed milk, six eggs beaten to froth, a little
nutmeg and a little vanilla or rose-water. Boil
the milk, remove from the fire, and gradually

COOKING DEPARTMENT.                                                    25

whip in the eggs. When nearly cold, season ;
add the cocoanut, and pour into paste-shells.
Bake twenty minutes.

If you pour the raw mixture into cups and
bake by setting in a pan of boiling water, stirring
once well as they begin to warm, you will have
Cocoanut Cup Custard.

Rhubarb Pie.—Peel the stalks, cut in half-inch
lengths, strew plentifully with sugar, and fill the
crusts with the raw fruit. Cover, and bake about
forty minutes, take out and brush with egg while
hot, and return to the oven to glaze.


General Directions.—Always use the best mate­
rials. Cream the butter and sugar together.
Use a Dover egg-beater and beat whites and
yelks separately. Cream tartar should be sifted
through the flour; soda dissolved in hot water or
milk. The success of cake depends on having
the ingredients beaten together before the flour
is put in, after which stir as little as possible.
Shake a little sugar over the loaf before putting
into the oven ; this will insure a good top crust.
Bake well. Dried currants should be carefully
picked over and washed till clean, drained and
spread to dry. Raisins should be stoned, cut or
chopped. Fruit should be dredged with flour
before putting in the cake, to prevent its settling.

Sponge Cake.—Six eggs, yelks and whites bea
en separately ; two cups sugar, two cups flour,
a little salt, the juice and grated rind of a lemon.
Before the flour is put in, the cake should be
beaten a long time. After the flour is added, it
should be lightly stirred. This quantity will
make one large sheet or two small ones.

Cup Cake.— Break up two pounds butter, add
three pounds sugar and sixteen eggs, a third at
a time; beat up light, add five pounds flour, two
pints milk, and ammonia two ounces ; make all
smooth by thorough mixing. Bake in small
pans in a moderate oven.

Drop Cake.—Rub together three pounds sugar
and one and a quarter pounds butter; add
thirteen eggs, in three different lots, three pints
of sour milk, one and a half ounces soda, one
and a half ounces ammonia ; flavor with ex­
tract lemon, stir all well together, add flour suf­
ficient to make a stiff batter; drop on buttered
pans, bake in a quick oven.

Delicate Cake.—One half tumbler butter, one
tumbler sugar, whites of three eggs, two tumblers
flour (scant), one half tumbler milk, one tea-
spoonful cream of tartar, one half teaspoonful

Adrea's Cup Cake.One half cup butter, one
cup sugar, one half cup milk, two cups flour,
two eggs, one teaspoonful cream of tartar, one

half teaspoonful soda. Dried currants may be

Mountain Pound Cake.One pound sugar, one
pound flour, one half pound butter, three quar­
ter cups of milk, one teaspoonful soda, two tea-
spoonfuls cream of tartar, six eggs, whites and
yelks beaten separately. The butter and sugar
should be beaten to a cream and part of the eggs
added, then the flour and milk, then the remain­
der of the eggs.

Marble Cake.Light part: whites of three eggs,
one half cup butter, one half cup sugar, one half
cup milk, two cups flour, one half teaspoonful
soda, one teaspoonful cream of tartar. Dark
part: yelks of three eggs, one cup molasses, one
half cup butter, two cups flour, one teaspoonful
soda, one third cup milk; flavor with spices.
Butter the pan and put in the dark and light in
alternate layers, leaving the light on top.

Cream Cakes.Take one quart water and one
pound dark coarse-grained lard; boil together in
a kettle, and then stir in seventeen ounces of
best-quality flour; boil all four or five minutes,
or until it is quite smooth ; then turn it out on a
board, and scrape the kettle with a knife ; now
put your paste in the kettle again, with ten eggs;
stir well together until all is smooth ; then add
eighteen or twenty more eggs, or until the bat­
ter is of the right thickness; next dissolve one
quarter ounce soda in a little water, and mix in
thoroughly ; drop on pans slightly greased ; wash
them on top with egg, and bake in a quick oven.
They will require sixteen to eighteen minutes to
bake with a proper heat. When baked, remove
from the fire ; split them through the center and
fill them with the following cream : Place on the
fire one quart milk in a kettle, mix four ounces
flour, eight ounces white sugar, four eggs and a
little salt in another vessel; when the milk boils,
turn in the mixture, stirring briskly; when it boils,
remove from the fire, and flavor with lemon or
vanilla as desired.

Orange Cake.One cup granulated sugar, one
half cup butter, one half cup cold water, two
cups sifted flour, three eggs, reserving the whites
of two; two teaspoonfuls baking powder, juice
and grated rind of one orange. Bake on jelly-
cake tins. This will make three layers. Filling:
the whites of the two eggs, grated rind and
juice of half an orange or lemon, two cups pow­
dered sugar; place this between the layers and
a smooth thick coating for the top.

Jelly Cake.—Juice and rind of one lemon, two
eggs, one cup of sugar; cook the mixture in
boiling water till it thickens.

Apple-Jelly Cake.—Four apples peeled and
grated, juice and grated rind of one lemon,
beaten yelks of two eggs ; boil up and sweeten to
taste. Make any good cup­cake and bake in jel-



ly cake tins and put this filling between. The 1
whites may be used for frosting.

Silver Cake.One cup sugar, a half cup butter, a
half cup milk, a half cup flour, whites of four eggs,
one teaspoonful cream of tartar, a half teaspoon-
ful soda. Almond or rose is good for flavor­
ing. The same recipe for gold cake, using in­
stead the yelks and flavoring with vanilla.

Chocolate Cake.—A half cup butter, one and a
half cups sugar, two cups flour, a half cup milk,
three eggs, one teaspoonful cream of tartar, a
half teaspoonf ul soda. Filling: a half cake choc­
olate, add milk or water and piece of butter as
large as a nut; sweeten and flavor to taste; cook
it, stirring well, and spread between the layers
and on top before it cools and stiffens.

Wedding Cake.One and a quarter pounds but­
ter, one and a quarter pounds sugar, one pound
flour, three pounds raisins, three pounds cur­
rants, two pounds citron, ten eggs, two wine-
glassfuls brandy ; spice to taste.

Pigeon-Cove Berry Cake.One cup sugar, butter
size two eggs, one egg, four cups flour, one cup
milk, one and a half pints whortleberries or blue-
berries. Better eaten hot, but may also be used

Bath Cakes.—Mix well together one pound
flour, a half pound butter, five eggs and a cupful
of yeast; set the whole before the fire to rise; af­
ter it rises, add a quarter pound white sugar and
one ounce caraway seeds well mixed in, and roll
the paste into little cakes ; bake them on tins.

Brandy Snaps.—Mix up one and a half pounds
flour, a half pound butter, a half pound sugar, a
half ounce cloves, and a half pint molasses.
Mix all together and bake.

Cinnamon Cakes.Put twelve eggs and six de
sert­spoonfuls of rose-water into a bowl; whisk
together, and add two pounds fine sugar and
one ounce of ground cinnamon and flour suffi­
cient to make a nice stiff paste ; roll them out;
cut into any desired shape, and bake them on
paper, in a slow oven.

Citron Cake is made similar to the above, with
the addition of sliced citron when the flour is
added, or preferably put the citron on the batter
after it is in the pans. Bake as the last.

Cocoanut Cakes.To each pound of grated co-
coanut add one pound of powdered sugar and
the whites of four eggs ; put all in a kettle and
cook on the fire for about thirty minutes, stir­
ring well all the time, and avoid burning ; cook
to a soft and mushy consistence; turn it out and
add to each pound of cocoanut as previously
weighed two ounces of flour, working it well into
the mixture. Now put it in well-greased pans,
selecting a small piece in your hands, rolling it
round and laying it on the pans, putting them
about one inch apart, to allow for spreading, and
bake in a cool oven.

Ginger Snaps.—Put two quarts molasses, one
and a half pounds lard, three ounces ground
ginger, two ounces soda, and one pint water
into a bowl; mix all together; add flour enough
to make a stiff dough, then work in two pounds
sugar; roll thin, cut in long strips in rolls
on the table; cut them off with a knife or cut­
ter the desired size, put on buttered tins, flat­
ten them down a little with the hand, and bake
in a slow oven.

Ginger Snaps.— Take seven pounds flour, one
quart molasses, one pound brown sugar, one
pound butter, two ounces ground ginger, and
then take one gill water, three quarter ounces
saleratus; mix them all into dough and cut them
out something larger than marbles, and bake
them in a moderate oven.

Seed Cakes.Rub together one pound butter
and two pounds flour; then into a hollow in the
center put four pounds sugar, two quarts milk,
four ounces caraway seeds and a little ammo­
nia; mix up, but do not work it much; roll out;
cut with a small cutter, and bake in a warm

Cross Buns.—Work twenty-four pounds dough,
two pounds sugar, two pounds butter, twelve
eggs and a little cinnamon into the dough, and
set away to rise; then pinch them off in about
two-ounce pieces; mold them up; pin out; put
on pans, and mark them across with a knife or
cross them with strips of dough.

Jumbles.—Rub together three pounds sugar
and two pounds four ounces butter; add twelve
eggs, a few at a time; beat all up well ; add three
quarter ounces ammonia, one and a half pints
milk, a little extract lemon, and five pounds
four ounces flour, and stir sufficiently to mix.

Crullers.One cup sugar, one cup milk, butter
size of an egg, two eggs, one teaspoonful cream
of tartar, a half teaspoonful soda, flour enough to
roll out, and cut into shapes just the right thick­
ness for frying well. The crullers should be
dropped into boiling fat, either lard or nice beef-
drippings well clarified.

No. 1 Crackers.Butter, one cup ; salt, one tea-
spoon; flour, two quarts. Rub thoroughly to­
gether with the hand, and wet up with water;
heat well, and beat in flour to make quite brittle
and hard ; then pinch off pieces and roll out each
cracker by itself.

Boston, or Soft Crackers.—First sift in four ba
rels of flour into the trough, add two pails of
stock yeast and about nine pails of water; mix
all into a sponge and allow it to stand until it
rises and falls twice. The sponge will require
about six or eight hours to become ready; if it
sours a little, so much the better. Usually it is
set about noon for the work next day, and if set
warm, for using stock yeast instead of ferment,



it will come less rapidly. The sponge being
ready, add to it from eight to ten pails more wa­
ter ; mix and break the sponge up well, making
a stiff dough, and let it stand until next morning.
It is requisite that the dough should be sour, to
insure good crackers. When ready, remove a
sample of it sufficient for one ovenful of crack­
ers ; take it to another part of the trough, and
add to it from five to six pounds of butter or
lard, the proportion to be added to be estimated
by the dimensions of the piece so separated ;
soda in solution is now to be added, made by
dissolving soda, one pound, in cold water, one
quart, and the detached piece of dough may be
intermixed with one pint of the liquid, repre­
senting eight ounces of soda, but the exact quan­
tity required must be ascertained by the acidity
or age of the dough and the judgment of an ex­
perienced practitioner. Mix the soda and butter
thoroughly into the dough, and put it through
the rollers repeatedly or until smooth. Place a
sample of this dough in the oven to determine
whether or not it contains the proper quantity of
soda. When baked, too much soda will induce
a yellow appearance, and more dough without
soda must be added; a deficiency of soda will be
indicated by a sour smell, and in that case more
soda must be added. When all is right, the
dough is put through the machine, and the suc­
ceeding batch of crackers is commenced by se­
lecting another piece of dough and proceeding as
above, adding the butter and soda in the required
proportion, each batch requiring more soda on
account of the increasing acidity acquired by
long exposure to the air.

Another way.Set the sponge on the previous
night, and the next day, instead of making dough
of it, select a portion of the sponge, adding to it
the butter and soda as above directed, working
them well into it, and adding flour enough to
make a stiff dough, and it is ready for the break.
When you detach part of the sponge to make
the batch, add water enough to the sponge, and
stir it up with more flour, thus continuing to
renew the sponge as fast as it is used.

Cream Crackers.Rub together fourteen pounds
flour and one pound butter ; then add one pound
pounded sugar, forty-eight eggs, and flavor; mix
thoroughly, and work it quite stiff and smooth ;
roll out quite thin; cut them with a cutter in the
form of an oak leaf; put them into boiling water
and boil till they float; remove with a skimmer
and dry them on cloths, and bake on clean pans
without being buttered, in a warm oven.

Oyster Crackers are made of the same dough,
using the scraps also. Butter, Sugar and other
crackers are made the same way, adding respec­
tively butter and sugar.

Soda Crackers are made by the same process, of

the same dough ; after using the scraps, add a
little more butter, rolling them thinner and cut­
ting them square.

Sugar Crackers.—Flour, four pounds; loaf-sugar
and butter, of each half a pound; water, one and
a half pints. Make as above.


Blanc Mange, Almond.Take four ounces of a
monds, six ounces sugar, boil together with a
quart of water, melt in this two ounces of pure
isinglass, strain in a small tin mold to stiffen it.
When wanted, dip the mold in hot water and
turn it out.

Blanc Mange, Lemon.Pour a pint of hot water
upon half an ounce of isinglass; when it is dis­
solved add the juice of three lemons, the peel
of two lemons grated, six yelks of eggs beaten ;
add about a good wine-glass of Madeira wine to
it; sweeten to your taste; let it boil; then strain
it and put it in your molds.

Charlotte Russe.Take one pint milk; dissolve
with heat three ounces isinglass and one pound
sugar; add, after it is cool, one quart beaten
cream and flour; suit your taste, and line out
some mold with sponge cake, and put the cream
in it and cool.

Custard, Boiled, or Mock-Cream.Take two table-
spoonfuls of corn-starch, one quart of milk, two
or three eggs, one half teaspoonful of salt and a
small piece of butter; heat the milk till nearly
boiling and add the starch, previously dissolved
in one quart of milk, then add the eggs, well
beaten, with four tablespoonfuls of powdered
sugar; let it boil up once or twice, stirring it
briskly, and it is done. Flavor with lemon or
vanilla or raspberry, or to suit your taste.

Creams, Lemon.Take a pint of thick cream
and put to it the yelks of two eggs well beaten,
four ounces of fine sugar and the thin rind of a
lemon; boil it up, then stir till almost cold; put
the juice of a lemon in a dish or bowl and pour
the cream upon it, stirring till quite cold.

Fruit.—Take one half ounce of isinglass dis­
solved in a little water, then put one pint of good
cream, sweetened to the taste; boil it. When
nearly cold lay some apricot or raspberry jam on
the bottom of a glass dish and pour it over.
This is most excellent.

Raspberry.—Put six ounces of raspberry jam
to one quart of cream, pulp it through a lawn
sieve, add to it the juice of a lemon and a little
sugar, and whisk it till thick. Serve it in a dish
or glasses.

Ice Cream.—Beat the required quantity of ice
very fine in a stout bag or by any other means,
and add fine salt in ratio of one part of salt to
four parts of ice, mixing thoroughly with a stick.
Pack the compound neatly in the freezer around



the cylinder to the top, then put in the cream
(which should be cool) you wish to freeze, and,
after covering, proceed to turn the crank back
and forth alternately ten or twelve times each
way until the cream is sufficiently thick to beat,
which will be known by the opposition to the
beater, then turn forward quite briskly for a
short space in order to impart an even and good
appearance to the cream; make thorough work
of the beating, then remove the beater, fill the
pail with ice and salt, and set away to harden.
It will not do to introduce additional ice or salt,
or allow it to grow stiff while beating, or beat it
too much, or to retard the freezing process by
pouring off water from the melted ice. The
right time to beat it is when it is dense enough
to rise, or about the thickness of light batter; if
beaten when rigid the product will not be so
satisfactory. As the cream expands in freezing,
the cylinder should be filled three fourths full
and no more.

Strawberry and Raspberry Cream Ice.Pass three
pounds of picked strawberries or raspberries
through a course hair-sieve, add one and a half
quarts double cream, two and a half pounds
sifted sugar, mix well together, freeze as above
and mold it. If a deep red is desired, it may be
imparted by a few drops of cochineal.

Ice Cream, Best Quality.Beat well together nine
eggs with one and a half pounds sugar; boil
three quarts good cream, set it off for a short
space, then add the sugar and eggs, flavor with
vanilla, etc., to suit the taste. Let it cool, place
in the freezer and proceed as above.

Substitute for Cream.—Boil one quart of good
milk with one and a half ounces of arrowroot,
having first brought the milk to the boiling
point and mixed the arrowroot smooth with a
little cold milk; remove from the fire, add two
fresh eggs, eight ounces of powdered sugar, stir
well, allow it to cool, and flavor previous to put­
ting in the freezer.

Orange Cream Ice.—Mix together in a stew-pan
one quart milk or cream, one pound sugar, the
juice of eight oranges, the rinds of four oranges
rubbed on the sugar, and four yelks of eggs, un­
til the compound begins to thicken ; stir briskly,
and strain, freezing when cool, as above.

Pineapple Cream Ice.Put on the fire in a cop­
per or tin vessel one pound of strained pine­
apple pulp, twelve ounces sugar, one and a half
pints milk or cream, and three yelks of eggs;
beat sufficiently to thicken, not to boil the cream,
strain the mixture into a vessel, and set aside to
cool previous to freezing.

Lemon Jelly.—Two ounces of Cooper‘s or Cox‘s
gelatine put to soak in a porcelain kettle with
one pint of water; after it has soaked fifteen or
twenty minutes put in about one pound of gran­
ulated sugar, the juice of four or five lemons—two

or three of the peels may be dropped in—and add
three pints boiling water; the kettle may be
placed on the back of the stove until thorough­
ly mixed, then remove, and strain through a
jelly-cloth or fine sieve into molds or a large
straight-edged dish; set away to cool, and when
served take out of the molds in shape, or cut
in cubes. Some like a little whiskey, as it gives
a bright taste.

Wine Jelly.— Made the same as lemon jelly; but
instead of lemons stick-cinnamon should be
used, and about a pint of sherry or madeira wine
in place of one pint of water. A little brandy is
an improvement. Cochineal may be dissolved
and added if a rich wine color is desired.

Vanilla Snow.—Four tablespoonfuls of gelatine
soaked in a teacupful of cold water, one teacup-
ful boiling water added; let all partly cool; one
cup of sugar, then beat until white and foamy; a
cake-beater is excellent, but an egg-beater will
answer. Beat whites of four eggs to a stiff,
then pour into the gelatine mixture and beat all
together for perhaps fifteen minutes ; add three
teaspoonfuls vanilla flavoring. It should be
poured into a salad-bowl or large round dish, and
when cold hold its place heaped high in the dish.
It is a very handsome dish and very delicate;
good served with fruit or rich preserve.


Tea.Tea should be strong, hot and freshly
made. If the tea is made in the kitchen the
water should be freshly boiled in the tea-kettle.
If a spirit-lamp is used on the table there is little
danger of the water being stale. Scald the tea-
pot, put in the tea and cover with boiling water.
Let the pot stand five minutes for the tea to
steep; it should be covered with a napkin or
‘‘cosey,” then fill up the pot with boiling water.

Cocoa.—Six tablespoonfuls of cocoa to each
pint of water, as much milk as water. Sugar to
taste. Rub the cocoa smooth with a little cold
water; have the quantity of water required boil­
ing on the fire; stir in the grated cocoa paste;
boil twenty minutes; add the milk, and boil five
minutes, stirring often. There is a preparation
of cocoa called cocoatina, which is powdered and
needs no boiling.

Chocolate.—Six tablespoonfuls of chocolate to
each pint of water, as much milk as chocolate.
Make a smooth paste of the chocolate with cold
water, and stir into the hot water; boil twenty
minutes; stir in the milk and boil a few minutes
more; sweeten to taste.

Coffee.—Put a quart of boiling water into the
pot, wet a cupful of ground coffee with the white
of an egg and a little of the shell and cold water;
put all into the boiling water, and come up to a
good boil; add a half cup cold water, let it settle
a few minutes, and it is ready to serve.

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