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Back............    346

Basset Hound.........    340

Beagle...........    341

Black-and-Tan.........    343 I

Bloodhound..........    340

Bulldog...........    344

Care of a Brood Bitch......    347

Care of a Brood Bitch after whelping .    348

Care of Stud Dog.......   347

Chest............   346

Choice of Puppies...... .    347

Clumber Spaniel........   342

Coach-Dog..........   343

Cocker and Field Spaniel.....    342

Cross-Breeds.........   340

Dachshund..........    340

Deerhound..........    340

Dhole............    340

Dingo............   340

Diseases of Dogs........   348

Acute Laryngitis...... .   348

After a Bitch whelps......    350

Anaemia..........   349

Asthma..........   349

Balanitis..........   350

Bronchitis..........   348

Canker ..........    350

Colic...........    351

Complication attending parturition .    348

Diarrhea..........   351

Diet and Care of the Sick ....   348

Disease around the Anus ....   350

Disease of the Ear.......   350

Disease of the Liver......   350

Diseases of the Blood.....   349

Diseases of the Mouth .....   349

Disinfection.........   348

Distemper.........   851

Disorders of the Digestive Organs .    349

Diseases of Dogs:

Dysentery ..........    350

Eczema..........    351

Fevers...........    348

Fits............    351

Fleas...........    351

Follicular Mange .......    351

Fractures or Dislocations ....    352

Hydrophobia........    351

Inflammation of the Digestive Organs   349

Influenza..........    348

Lice...........    351

Malpresentations.......   350

Meningitis .........    351


Ophthalmia.........   351

Peritonitis.........   349

Piles...........   350

Pneumonia.........   348

Retention of the Urine.....   350

Respiratory Diseases......   348

Rheumatism.........   351

Sarcoptic Mange.......   351

Skin Diseases........351

Sprains or Bruises.......   352

Teeth...........   349

The Pulse.........   348

Use of Instruments......   850

Worms..........   351

Dog, Housing.........    346

Domesticated Dog.......   339

Elbow...........    346

English Greyhound.......   340

Exercising..........   347

Feeding...........   346

Feet............   346

Foxhound..........    340

Fox-Terrier..........    340

Great Dane..........    840

Head.......... . .   342

History of Dogs ........   339

Irish Terrier....... . .   340

Trish Water Spaniel.......   342

Italian Greyhound .......   346

Management of Dogs ......    346

Mastiff...........   344

Mating...........    347

Mexican Hairless Dog......    346


Newfoundland.........   344

Otter Hound.........    340

Pariah...........   340

Pastoral...........   340

Pomeranian..........   344

Poodle...........   343

Retrievers..........   343

Rough Collie.........    343

Russian Wolfhound.......    340

Scotch Terrier.........   342

Setter and Pointer.......   342

Sheep-Dog..........   343

Shoulders......... .   346

Smooth Collie.........   343

Spaniels...........   342

Standards..........   346

St. Bernard......... .   344

Terriers...........   340

The Bitch..........   347

Thighs...........   346

Toy-Dogs..........   344

Toy Spaniels.........   344

Treatment of Bitch after Conception .   347

Washing of Dogs ........   347

Watch-Dog..........   340

Weaning Puppies.......   348

Wild Dog..........   339

Yorkshire Terrier........   342

No one can doubt that the varieties of dogs exist­
ing to­day have been produced by selection and

Some breeds which existed twenty years ago have
almost, if not quite, disappeared at the present day.
The French naturalist Cuvier attempted to make
a scientific classification of dogs, founded on the
shape of the head, length of jaws, etc., although
these distinctive features vary according to the

peculiar qualities, habits, etc., of the breed. This
classification does not seem possible ; and as the
purpose for which a particular breed is used has
largely to do with the form and psychic characteris­
tics of the animal, the following classification given
by Stonehenge is suggested :

1.   Wild and half-reclaimed dogs, hunting in packs.

2.   Domesticated dogs, hunting chiefly by the eye, and
killing their game for the use of man.

340                                                        THE FRIEND OF ALL

3.   Domesticated dogs, hunting chiefly by the nose,
and both finding and killing their game.

4.   Domesticated dogs, finding game by scent, but not
killing it; being chiefly used in aid of the gun.

5.   Pastoral dogs and those used for the purposes of

6.   Watch­dogs, house-dogs, and toy-dogs.

7.   Crossed breeds, retrievers, etc.

Class I.

Among this class are the dingo, dhole, pariah,
the wild dog of Africa, and the North and South
American dogs.

The Dingo.Is much like the fox in appearance,
twenty-four inches in height, but, unlike the fox,
carries the tail curled over the hip.

The Dhole.—A native wild dog of India, resem­
bling the dingo, but without a bushy tail. He is a
foe to wild animals, even the tiger, and has great
speed and endurance.

The Pariah.—Also is a native of India, and al­
though roving by nature, they can be taught to

The wild African dogs are wild, ferocious, and
scavengers of the refuse in the village streets.

Class II.

The English Greyhound.—A combination of
strength, grace and great speed.

The head of the greyhound is long, thin and
tapering, with a full, clean eye. The ears small, and
folded back closely to the head. The coat is glossy
and smooth and may be of almost any color. A
small greyhound is preferable for speed.

The Deerhound.An animal suitable for any
work, with a heavy head and neck. Color, dark-
blue, fawn, grizzle, brindle. Coat, rough, coarser
on the back than on other parts of the body.

The Russian Wolfhound.This is a more recently
popular breed, and is seen to some degree in Amer­
ica, although used more in Russia and Britain. The
dog is of great size, a combination of greyhound
and setter, with an elegant, strong form, and is
exceedingly muscular.

Class III.

The Bloodhound.The largest of hounds ; he re­
sembles the English foxhound.

Skull, narrow and domed. Eyes, small, set in
head far back, and with a third red eyelid. Ears,
very long and silky, hanging closely to the head.
Muzzle, blunt on the end and long. Coat, short
but soft. Color, tan and black.

The Foxhound.The breeding of this dog has
been most rigidly selected to fit him for his particu­
lar work, and his form is considered a model one
for speed and endurance.

Head, large with good-sized brain.

Muzzle, long with open nostrils. Back, very

muscular. Legs and feet of great strength. Coat,
thick and short. Color, black, tan, and white,
black and white, and a yellowish tan.

The Beagle.A symmetrical small foxhound, used
in a pack for rabbit-hunting. Eyes, soft and mild
in expression, with an indentation between. It is
important that the dog should not stand higher
than fifteen inches at the shoulder.

The Otter Hound.Uncertain in temper but cour­
ageous. They are like the bloodhound with the
exception of the coat, which is thick and suited to
the habits of the dog.

The Basset Hound.This dog is a slow traveler,
which is considered desirable in hunting deer.
The head is similar to that of a bloodhound ; the
body is long, but the legs are short with crooked
fore­legs, so that the feet turn out.

The Dachshund.—This is a German name, mean­
ing badger-dog. The body is long with very short
legs, the front ones crooked, and turning out at the
toes. The head is long, narrow, running to a peak
on top. Bright eyes ; long, silky, low-hanging ears.
The coat is either long or short and very thick.

The Great Dane.A cross between a mastiff and
the greyhound ; he is gentle and easily managed.
although so ferocious in appearance as to make an
excellent watch­dog for an estate.

The minimum height for the dog is 30 inches,
weight 130 pounds ; for the bitch, 28 inches and
100 pounds. The head resembles that of the bull-
terrier. The ears are usually cut, but if not, are
like those of the greyhound. Neck, long, and set
cleanly on the body. Coat, short and thick. Colors,
gray, blue, black, white, red, tan, brindle, with
patches of dark color.

Terriers.Many breeds for different purposes,
but with certain characteristics which make the
terrier race distinct. The head is somewhat wedge-
shaped, with strong jaws and teeth, small, close
ears, and bright, deep-set eyes. The body must be
very strong and active, capable of speed. The coat
may be very long and silky or short and thick.

The Fox-Terrier.Used for starting but not kill­
ing the fox, a good rat-catcher, intelligent, lively
and companionable.

Head, narrowing toward muzzle ; ears small, fre­
quently cropped ; black nose; dark rims around
eyes; teeth level; neck, clean and muscular;
chest, deep; well-sprung ribs ; loin, strong, not
tucked up in flanks. Stern (tail), usually docked,
but if not, should be carried high. Legs and feet
resemble the foxhound. Coat, either smooth or
wire-haired. If smooth, it should be rather coarse,
flat, and thick; if wire-haired the coat should be
hard, wiry and longer than the smooth-coated ter­
rier. Color, should be brindle, red, or liver, with
a large amount of white, and a trace of black. The
weight should be from 16 to 20 pounds.

Irish Terrier.This breed is not so extensively

At Bay.

342                                                  THE FRIEND OF ALL

used in America as in Britain. He closely resem­
bles the fox-terrier but is larger. A fighter, but
companionable to man. Coat, straight, flat, much
like a wire-haired fox-terrier. Color, whole-colored,
red, wheaten, yellow and gray. Weight, 16 to 24

Black-and-Tan Terrier.—A good dog for vermin
but not as popular as the fox-terrier. Not sociable,
and sensitive to cold. Head, long and narrow,
wedge in shape. Eyes dark, very bright; ears,
small, set close together on top of the head; chest,
narrow between fore­legs, deep in brisket; ribs well
sprung. Loin, slightly tucked up; quarters power­
ful. Feet, black nails ; two middle toes longest.
Tail, short and tapering. Coat, short and glossy.
Color, very important, sharply defined. Black pre­
vailing color. Weight, about the same as Irish

The Yorkshire Terrier.—A toy-dog, the chief fea­
ture being the coat, which is long, hanging straight
down on each side from the top of the head to the
tail. Head, small; nose, black; eyes, bright and
dark ; ears, small and half erect, sometimes cropped.
Coat, steel-blue, with golden tan on muzzle ; deep
tan on ears and legs. Weight about five pounds.

Scotch Terriers.—Comprising the Skye and the
hard-haired. These dogs are gentle and great
pets. They stand low, with a long body, a Skye
being three times his height in length. Weight
should not be above twenty pounds. Coat, on the
hard-haired type is about two inches long, hard and
thick ; on the Skye it is very long, bright and not
silky, except on the top of the head. Color, steel
or iron-gray, black brindle, brown brindle, and
gray brindle. The color of the Skye most preferred
is slaty or steel-blue.

Class IV.

In this class are included pointers, setters and
different kinds of spaniels. All breeds of dogs,
wild or domesticated, have a natural faculty for
scenting their prey ; but in the case of the class we
are now considering there has been going on a rigid
process of weeding out the inferior dogs, and breed­
ing only from the best, through many generations,
until a class of animals has been evolved, in which
scenting game is not only a natural instinct, but
also the reason for their greatest usefulness to man.
A dog thus highly developed in “scenting" and
“pointing" qualities, is of great sagacity and usu­
ally of a highly nervous organism. So important
are these powers in this class of dogs, together
with great speed and endurance, that symmetry
and beauty of form are secondary considerations.

Setter and Pointer.—Skull, long, not wide, with
long muzzle and widely opened nostrils. Eye,
kind and intelligent; ears, long, low-hanging and
soft. Neck, long and graceful; shoulders, back,
loin, suited for speed and endurance. The leg-

bones, pasterns and feet must be strong. Coat
in these breeds must be very thick and heavy,
especially on the ears, legs, breast and tail. The
pointer's coat is short and soft, but not as silky as
the setter's. The Gordon is the largest and heavi­
est of the setter family; the Irish, the lightest built
but most wiry. The English is a medium between
the two

Head.—The pointer's head is wider from ear to
ear, consisting of two rounded flats with a depres­
sion between. The entire head of the Gordon is
heavier than the others. The Irish setter's head
is long and thin with a domed skull. All setters'
noses should be dark in color. Tail is carried
erect, curving slightly toward the back of the
animal. Color, in the case of the English setter
and pointer, is not of much importance; liver and
white, black, white and tan, blue belton, white
flecked with black. The choice color for the Irish
setter is dark red.

Spaniels.—In Britain the Clumber, field, Cocker,
Irish water and English water spaniels are used for
hunting. In America the only one of these breeds
which is popular is the Cocker. All spaniels are of
a sweet, gentle, shy nature.

Cocker and Field Spaniels.—These dogs are low,
heavy and cobby, weighing between eighteen and
and twenty-eight pounds. The eyes should be very
bright and of the color of the coat. The neck fairly
long but cleanly built; shoulders, muscular; chest,
wide ; ribs, well sprung; legs and feet, strong; fore­
legs not bandy, as is commonly the case; feet,
medium size, thick pads, and a deep fringe of hair
between the toes. Length of body should be con­
siderable ; for the Cocker, “ from tip of nose to root
of tail about twice the height at shoulder, rather
more than less." Coat very thick, silky, wavy but
not too tightly curled ; chest, tail, ears and legs
heavily feathered. Color, black, liver and white,
and various shades of red. Tail usually docked,
especially if the dog is to be used for hunting.

Clumber Spaniel.—Very long body, heavy look­
ing, with great power. Head very massive, flat on
top, depression from between the eyes, running up
to top of skull. Jaw long, with deep muzzle of great
strength ; nostrils, wide spread; eyes, soft, deep-set
and intelligent; ears, long, turned over on front
edge. Length twice and a half times height at shoul­
der. Coat, silky, straight, rather short, thick ; color,
lemon and white, orange and white, solid lemon
or orange ears ; tail usually docked, carried low.

Irish Water Spaniel.—Not as popular in Amer­
ica as in Britain, although no dog is better suited
for water retrieving and duck-shooting. Very in­
telligent, but not always good-tempered. Head,
medium length, broad. Muzzle, long and broad.
Eyes, dark and bright. Ears, long and curly.
Chest, deep. Loin, rather arching. Tail, strong,
coming to a fine point at the end. Legs, long;



feet, large. Coat, small curls all over except on
face and tail. On head a long top-knot, falling
over the eyes. Color, dark liver, sometimes a little
white on breast and toes.

Retrievers.—This breed of dogs is used in
Britain for retrieving on land, but in America the
spaniels, pointers and setters take their place.
There are two classes of retrievers : wavy-coated
and curley-coated black retrievers. Both kinds
are large. This kind of dog was formed prob-


ably by a cross between a Newfoundland and the
spaniel or setter. There are a few qualities which
are essential, viz., speed, endurance, long neck for
stooping power, scenting power, docility and a
desire to work.

The Dalmation or Coach-Dog.—In his native coun­
try this dog is employed in the same way a
pointer is used in this country. Here he is gen­
erally used for following a carriage, being adapted
for long journeys; muscular, though not heavy.
The markings are his chief attraction, counting 40
per cent, by standard of the club, being black
spots on a white ground, the spots the size of
an English shilling. The spots must also be so
close that there will not seem to be patches of

The Poodle.—In Europe these animals are used
for fowling, but in America his chief use is that of
lap-dog. He is very intelligent, and is frequently
used for performing tricks in the circus, shows, etc.
Head, large and broad; muzzle, long; roof of
mouth, black ; eyes, dark, with a direct look; ears,
long and silky. Tail, frequently docked. Coat, in
the Russian, stiff; in the French, woolly; in the
corded, long curls. Color, pure white and pure
black, sometimes a kind of liver color.

Class V.

Sheep-Dogs.—This class includes the rough and
smooth collies, and the bob-tailed sheep-dog.
These dogs must be very intelligent, capable of
great traveling powers and endurance, and heavily
coated to resist rain and cold.

Rough Collie.—Head, flat, tapering toward the
muzzle, the upper teeth projecting a little over the
lower. Ears, very small and erect when listening;
neck, long, also loin. Tail, long, well feathered.
Coat, very abundant; outer coat, stiff and rather
harsh; inner coat, soft and exceedingly thick.
Color, sable and white, black and white, and black
and tan. Size, twenty-two or twenty-four inches

Smooth Collie.—Is much like the rough collie



excepting his coat; his head also being wider.
Coat, short and smooth.

Pomeranian or Spitz.Used in his native land
as a sheep-dog. In this country he has become a
pet. He is between the collie and fox, the smaller
specimens being more desirable. Coat, more like
fur than hair ; much like the collie. Color, black
or white, very finely marked. Tail, curled over the

Newfoundland.Used in native country for
draught purposes ; in other places for a companion
and watch­dog, being very intelligent and noble,
in which virtues he shares popularity with the St.
Bernard. He is distinctly a dog of strength and
activity. Head, massive, flat on top. Muzzle,
short, square on the end. Ears, small, hanging
close to the head. Tail, covered with deep fringe,
carried low, and slightly curved. Color, jet black.
Coat, coarse, thick but somewhat glossy. Height
and weight, 27 inches at shoulder and 185 pounds.

Class VI.

These dogs are used for guarding property and
persons on account of their warning bark, and
their keen knowledge of intruders.

The Bulldog.This race of dogs was originally
bred for the express purpose of badger and bull
baiting, their strength of jaw being their strongest

It does not of necessity prove that these dogs
are always ferocious and on the fight, for their
nature depends almost entirely on their bringing
up. The appearance is that of a dog smooth-
coated, with broad, deep chest, powerful, clean-cut
legs, and a large head.

“ The dog conveys an impression of determina­
tion, strength, and activity, similar to that sug­
gested by the appearance of a thick­set Ayrshire
or Highland bull." (Standard.)

Tail, smooth, tapering. Weight, about 50 pounds.
The “ rose-ear " is preferred rather than the “ but­
ton-ear” variety. Coat, smooth and short. Color,
black brindle, liver and white in varying combina­

The Mastiff.—The strongest and most muscular
of dogs except the great Dane, and a great watch­
dog, which is an instinct with him. A good com­
panion, gentle, a caretaker of small children, and
honest. He will catch and hold an intruder with­
out doing him violence, as in the case of the bull­
dog. Head, broad. Body, massive, powerful.
Legs, far apart and muscular. Skull, flat fore­
head, wrinkled depression between the eyes, run­
ning up on top of head. Proportionate length of
muzzle to head and face, one to three. “Circum­
ference of muzzle (measured midway between eyes
and tip of nose) to that of head (measured before
ears) as three to five.”

Ears, small, close to the head. Eyes, small,

wide apart, dark. Legs and feet, strong and rather
large. Coat, short and close. Color, tawny, fawn,
fawn brindle. Muzzle, nose and ears black, also
around the eyes.

The St. Bernard. —­Large, fine coat and color,
courageous, intelligent, dignified. Exceedingly
popular among men. Size, very important, es-
pecially head.

Head, very powerful. Skull, wide, curving on the
sides. Eyebrows, strongly marked, deep wrinkles
on the forehead. Muzzle, short tip, square end.
Upper jaw usually over­hanging. Black roof in
mouth. Nose, broad. Ears, very large, standing
out slightly. Eyes, medium size, brown, set in
deeply. Very good-natured expression. Shoul­
ders, rather sloping. Legs, heavy ; feet, large and
broad. Tail, long and heavily feathered, slightly
curled up. Coat, of two kinds, smooth and rough
coat. In the smooth-coat variety the coat is close,
wiry and very thick. In the rough-coated dog the
coat is slightly wavy, never curly and long. Tail,
bushy. Color markings, orange, tawny with white
markings and dark shadings. These markings are
most desirable :

White chest, feet, end of tail, muzzle, collar.
White on nape of neck. A little dark on face and
ears is considered desirable.

Toy-Dogs.—These dogs are small specimens usu­
ally, and frequently lack in stamina, being so much
confined to the house and having but little exercise,
with a great variety of food.

Toy-dogs are usually intelligent, but are fre­
quently obstinate and not always of a pleasant dis­
position ; but they are kept for their good looks
rather than for any other quality.

The chief breeds of America and Great Britain
are the pug, spaniels and Italian greyhound, toy-
terrier, and the Mexican hairless dogs.

The Pug.—A dog of not great intelligence, but
active and independent. Very much like a small
mastiff, but entirely different in disposition. Head,
round, large, deep wrinkles. Muzzle, short and
square. Eyes, very large, dark, prominent, intelli­
gent in expression. Ears, soft and small. Body,
legs and feet cobby in build. Tail, curl from tail
over the hip; double curl especially desirable,
Coat, smooth, glossy but not silky. Color, silver,
apricot, fawn markings on muzzle and ears, dia­
mond on forehead. The nose should be as black
as possible. Size, 13 to 17 pounds.

Toy Spaniels.—Long-haired, affectionate and
companionable. The different kinds are known by
their color distinctions. Head, skull rather domed,
branching from eyes. Muzzle, exceedingly short.
Nose, turned up. Eyes, far .apart, soft, large and
lustrous. Ears, very long, 20 to 22 inches from tip
to tip, longer than in either the King Charles or
Blenheim. Tail, frequently docked. Coat, long,
soft, wavy. Legs and feet, feathered, also the tail.

In Full Cry.



Color, varieties : King Charles, a silky black-and-
tan. Blenheim, ground white, patches of red or
chestnut. Charles I. spaniel, same as Blenheim,
but with black in place of red.

Italian Greyhound.Nervous, delicate, and ex­
ceedingly graceful; he much resembles the grey­
hound with the exception of not having so good a
head. Coat, short and silky. Color, fawns more
desirable. Size, not exceeding 7½ pounds.

Mexican Hairless Dog.This dog has almost no
hair, the skin being copper color spotted with black.

Standards.—A standard of any breed should mean
a nearly perfect dog. Clubs have been estab­
lished in the interest of almost every breed, and we
can attribute the good qualities of most of the dogs
about us to the club's care in weeding out the in­
ferior ones, and breeding only of the desirable.
Holding dog-shows and giving prizes are a great
stimulus to breeders of dogs to excel each other in
the perfection of their kennels.

The dog, like most other quadrupeds, is made up
of the following sections. Of the body :

Head, neck, chest, shoulders, back, loins, quar­
ters, tail, legs and feet. Character plays a leading
part in the desirability of the dog. He may be
properly formed and perfect in almost every other
respect, but without a good disposition he is hardly
fit for any use.

Head.This is a very important part of the dog,
as it contains the brain, which is the location of the
sensitive organs. It also determines the quality
and general characteristics of dogs.

Neck.—It is not necessary to say much on this
subject except that it should be in keeping with the
rest of the dog and be free from loose skin.

Shoulders.—When the animal is to be used for
speed the shoulders should be sloping, as in the
greyhound, also the race­horse.

Chest.The chest should be narrow in front to
give room to the heart and lungs, but it must be
wide above.

Back.—Must be rather short and level. Loins
and quarters muscular, which means breadth and
depth. In bitches there should be more depth
than in dogs.

Thighs.Well-developed and muscular.

Legs and Feet.The feet should be very strong
and muscular. From the elbow to the pastern the
leg should be perfectly straight with a large bone.
The pasterns must be strong to enable the dog to
gallop, jump, etc.

Elbows.—Should also be strong and well turned,
but neither “in” nor “ out.”

The feet are of two kinds, the harefoot and the
catfoot. It is a question which is more desirable,
but it is probably more a question of thickening of
the pads than the former.

The toe-nails are important, as the loss of one
may weaken the foot.

The tail seems to be of little importance, al­
though it has much to do with the character and
importance of good breeding. The tail is used fre­
quently to enable the dog to balance himself, and
the docked tail frequently causes the animal incon­
venience for this reason.

Management of Healthy Dogs.Mongrels are much
more easily kept in a healthy condition than high-
bred animals from the few essentials in management,
such as housing, feeding, exercise and grooming,

There are many opinions expressed on all these
subjects ; but the surest way to keep your dog in a
healthy condition is to find out for yourself what
things do, and do not, agree with him.

The Dog-Housing.—A life of comparative quiet is
almost necessary to a dog's nervous organization.
The natural inclination of such a dog is to retire in
some corner for a quiet nap three times a day, and
a dog's sleeping-place should be, first of all, cool,
temperature not exceeding 6o°, clean, absolutely
dry, and ventilated.

A very good arrangement for a small dog is a
large wooden box turned on its side, with a rug or
piece of carpet spread inside of it. If the dog is
housed out-of-doors in a kennel the subject of dry-
ness becomes more difficult to handle. The floor
of the house should be raised above the ground.
The kennel should be placed in a sunny, sloping
position with the outlook towards the south, so
that sunlight can reach it at all times of the day.
Fresh sawdust spread upon the floor is a good deo­
dorizer. When boxes are used for beds they should
be very often cleaned and disinfected to prevent

Feeding.—This is a subject of greatest impor­
tance to the health of the dog, and is responsible
for a large amount of the ills of the canine race.
For young dogs milk is most desirable; but the
fact must be remembered that food must be varied
according to the environments. Cooked meat is
better when fed in large quantities ; when raw meat
is used, it should be closely examined to see that it
contains no germs. Cooked liver is excellent, but
not as a regular diet. An agreeable dish for a dog
consists in boiling sheep's or ox's heads until the
flesh comes off. Flavor the broth with salt, skim
off the fat, and mix with it meal, corn-meal, spare
bread or biscuits. Dog-bread, as Spratt's for in­
stance, is convenient, but not good for regular use.
Cake, candy, or other sweets, it is needless to say,
are most injurious to a dog's digestion and bring on
many troubles. Dogs that have a great deal of
exercise, such as hunting, may be allowed about all
the food that they will take ; but dogs who are kept
close at home and toy-dogs require a great deal of
care. The breakfast should be simple, but at night
the meal should be substantial. Toy-dogs must be
given very little meat; milk, stale bread and eggs

DOGS.                                                                           347

are good substitutes. Two meals a day are sufficient
for any dog.

Exercise.If a dog is not used for any kind of
work he must be exercised. To lead him by a
chain is better than nothing, but it is a very poor
idea. To keep a dog chained constantly is a
cruelty. If it is considered necessary to keep a
dog shut up, he should have a yard around his
kennel, fenced in for his use. When a dog comes
in tired out from a long run he should not be given
food at once.

Care of Dog's Skin.This requires a great deal
of work. Brushing is necessary to all dogs, both
to brush out any foreign matter which may have
gotten entangled with the hair, and to improve the
gloss and appearance of the coat.

Washing.Large dogs are rather hard to handle
when washed, and a cold is frequently the result.
Keep the dog free from draught in a temperature
not lower than 60°. For some dogs tar soap
may be used; but in the case of spaniels it fre­
quently fades the hair. A good all-round soap is
Ivory. Use moderately warm water, with plenty
of soap-suds, and use a scrub-brush. When the
dog is taken out of the water dry him quickly, as
much as possible, and allow him to lie rolled up in
an old blanket until dry.


The female organs of generation at certain times
undergo a great amount of energy, resulting in the
maturation in the ovary, of eggs, which are dis­
charged into the Fallopian tubes, where they be­
come impregnated by the male cells. These periods
of sexual activity in the bitch occur usually twice a
year. Frequently these periods are preceded by ex­
citement. The mammary glands become enlarged,
and the disposition is somewhat changed. As soon
as the ova have become matured the female accepts
the male. The bitch may usually be allowed her
own time for accepting the male. Dogs “ in coitu "
must not be forcibly separated.

The time of being in “ heat " extends over about
three weeks, and during this time the bitch must
be separated from all other dogs except the one

It is necessary that the brood bitch be given the
greatest care, as her health, temper and occupation
influence her offspring. The mother and fetus
being so closely connected, it follows that the fetus
must influence the mother, which explains in some
cases why members of litters may resemble previ­
ous sires. “ Reversion" or “ atavism " implies re­
semblance to a previous sire.

Mating.—In considering this, both animals must
be selected carefully. The less closely animals are
connected, so long as type can be secured and
maintained, the better, and the reasons can be

clearly seen. Good results cannot be obtained
from two extremes. Dogs deficient in health and
strength should not be used in a stud. Frequently
a show bitch or dog is a poor breeder, while a
homely one, strongly made and vigorous, will pro­
duce puppies much superior to herself.

The Care of a Stud Dog.In choosing the dog
to mate with the bitch his condition must be con­
sidered, for it may have a marked effect on the
constitution of his offspring. Of such dogs the
greatest care must be taken. His food must be
nutritious and strengthening, such as eggs, broths,
and even cod-liver oil and phosphates. He should
have periods of sexual rest to enable him to re­
cuperate, free from excitement.

The Care of the Brood Bitch.—She should be
wholly matured. Bitches when too fleshy are not
able to conceive. When in “ heat " the bitch must
have less exercise than usual, avoid accidents, and
her food must be less stimulating.

Treatment of the Bitch after Conception.Is
greatly to be considered, and it must be remem­
bered that there are several young coming to life
at the expense of one organism.

Increase in size is seldom noticed before the
fourth or fifth week of gestation. The whole period
of gestation extends over nine weeks or sixty days.
The last three weeks are of great importance. Ex­
ercise should be cut down, and the bitch should be
kept quiet. Ventilation is an important point, life
out-of-doors being essential. Preparations should
be made for whelping. All vermin and dirt should
be removed from the mother by washing. Matters
should be so regulated that the puppies come in
summer or spring. At this time the bitch has an
inclination to retire, and should be allowed a sepa­
rate kennel, outside, and away from all other dogs.
Porridge and milk are useful in opening the bowels ;
but if the bowels are confined, castor-oil is a rem­
edy. Medicine should be avoided. A stall or loose
box in a stable, with straw in one corner, should be
provided. Beneath the straw should be placed a
piece of clean carpet which has been disinfected.
Only those whom the bitch likes should approach
her at this time. The temperature should not be
lower than 68. The mother cleans the puppies
thoroughly as soon as they appear, although the
bedding and herself may be in a very foul condi­
tion. So, as soon as the puppies are all born, it
is wise to renew the bed, using some disinfectant,
and to sponge off the bitch with warm water, adding
a few drops of carbolic acid, and dry well with
cloths. It is well to allow the puppies to suck as
soon as they wish, as it has a beneficial effect upon
the bitch. The mother should be encouraged to
leave her young, and go out in the fresh air and

Choice of Puppies.In a litter all the puppies are
not equally vigorous and beautiful. It is wiser to

348                                                  THE FRIEND OF ALL

quickly put out of the way any weak or deformed
ones. Ordinarily a bitch cannot well take care of
more than four or six puppies, and it would be
cruelty to allow her to have a litter of from eight to
twelve puppies.

Care of the Brood Bitch after Whelping.Consti­
pation and diarrhea must be checked or her milk
may be affected. Constipation can be relieved by
a rectal injection. A nursing bitch ought to be
fed three times a day with most nutritious food. A
bitch after whelping grows thinner, and, losing her
coat, may have eczema.

Weaning Puppies.—A bitch can seldom feed her
puppies more than four or five weeks, and should
be aided in her duties after the third week. The
only practical substitute is cow‘s milk, about one-
half water for the first two days, and gradually
strengthened to full strength. Soon the young
dogs can eat boiled rice and oatmeal porridge, with
stale bread added to their milk. Meat should not
be given until puppies are at least one year old,
with the exception of bones, which have been well
cleaned. These may be given for the purpose of
strengthening their teeth.

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