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FERMENTED AND OTHER BEVERAGES.                                   29


Ale and Beer.........................    30

American Champagne................    31

American Wines......................    39

Anisette Cordial.....................    32

Apple Toddy........................    32

Beer and Ale.........................    30

Belfast Ginger Ale...................    30

Blackberry Wine.....................    31

Bottling Wine........................    30

Bouquet.............................    29

Brown Stout.........................    30

Catawba Wine.......................    31

Champagne, American...............    31

Champagne Cider....................    32

Concentrated Lemonade.............    32

Concord Wine........................    29

Cream Soda..........................    32

Currant Wine........................    31

Delaware Wine.....................    29

Edinburgh Ale.......................    30

Elderberry Wine.....................    31

Fining Wine.........................    30

Flavor......... .....................    29

Ginger Ale...........................    30

Ginger Pop..........................    32

Ginger Wine.........................    31

Glasgow Punch......................    32

Half and Half........................    30

Lager...............................    30

Lemonade...........................    32

Milk Lemonade......................    32

Milk Punch..........................    32

Mint Julep...........................    32

Ottawa Beer.......................    31

Peppermint Cordial..................    32

Philadelphia Beer....................    30

Porter...............................    30

Raisin Wine..........................    31

Recipes..............................    31

Root Beer..........................    31

Serving Wine........................    30

Small Beer...........................    31

Soda Syrups..........................    32

Spruce and Ginger Beer..........___    31

Sweet Cider..........................    32

Unfermented Wine.................    31

Virginia Port........................    29

Wine.................................    29


This term is usually applied only to the fer­
mented juice of the grape; when other fruits are
used, the product is generally called home-made
or domestic wine. The first element which de­
termines the price of wines, as well as the duty
levied on them, is the amount of alcohol they
contain. Other qualities which they derive from
the grape-juice are taste and flavor. When fer­
mentation is not complete a certain quantity of
sugar is left, and according to the quantity left
wines are said to be " sweet” or “ dry;“ the
term “dry” wine meaning that which has no

The flavor and bouquet are sometimes com­
pounded, but are really different. The vinous
flavor is common to all wines, but the bouquet is
peculiar to certain wines. The substance which
gives the flavor is the cenanthic ether, and is
formed during fermentation.

The bouquet is formed by some of the acids,
after fermentation, uniting with the ethyl of the
alcohol and forming ethers. The bouquet is that
which makes one wine pleasanter to drink than
another, and gives a‘ great or small price when
the qualities are otherwise the same.

Saline compounds give a character to wine.
These are principally bitartrate of potash, tartrate
of lime, tartrate of iron, chloride of sodium,
chloride of potassium, with others. They do
not affect the flavor, but their presence is a sure
indication of the genuineness of certain wines.

Imported bottled wines are generally fit for
consumption after two or three months’ rest to
recover from the agitation caused by traveling.
In this state they are said to be “sick.” Cask
wine should rest the same length of time in a
cellar of even temperature. The proper time for
bottling wine must, of course, be determined by
a sample drawn from the cask


Until a recent period American wines were
seldom seen upon American tables, and even now
there is not as much known of them as their ex­
cellence demands, it being considered by compe­
tent judges that they are quite equal to many of
the European wines. The wines of the Atlantic
coast contain more acid, more sprightliness,
flavor and bouquet, while the wines of the Pacific
coast, or more commonly the California wines,
contain more spirit, little acid and little flavor or

White Wines.—The Catawba wine is the most
used of white wines, but it varies according to the
part of the country it is made in, that from
northern New York, Ohio and Illinois being
more acid and of higher flavor than that from
farther south. The Delaware wine is next in
popularity, and is of good color and fine body.
The still wine is best. Other white wines are
lona, Isabella, Massasoit, Herbemont, and Louisi-

Red Wines.—Of these the Concord wine is almost
as much used as the Catawba. It has an invigo­
rating effect, and should supplant the lower-priced
imported clarets as it is better, cheaper and more
wholesome. Virginia Port is dark red, very
heavy, has a strong aromatic flavor and is con­
sidered the best medicinal wine in America.
Some of the other red wines are the Cynthiana.
Catawissa, Wilder
and Devereaux.

California Wines.—Of these Hock is quite similar
to Rhine wine, and is largely drunk on the Atlan­
tic coast. California Port is strong and sweet,
probably on account of some sugar and alcohol
being added to it. The wines of the Sonora
are of fine quality and hardly inferior to
the Catawba wine. Madeira, Sherry and Claret
are made in small quantities, but are of inferior



An important fact about California wine is that
the makers have abundant supplies from their
vineyards, and therefore have little temptation to
adulterate them.


Cool, clear weather is best for bottling wine.
Great care should be taken to cleanse the bottles
perfectly. Coarse gravel is good for this pur­
pose. The corks used should be fine-grained
and show few pores. A cock should be inserted
in the cask an inch and a half above the rim. As
soon as the wine is so low that it will not run
from the cock, the cask must be tilted (with
great care, to prevent the lees from rising), and
the rest of the liquor drawn immediately. The
bottles containing sediment should be set up­
right to settle, after which they may be decanted
and corked.

To prevent mold from collecting on the corks,
melt two pounds of rosin and a quarter of a
pound of yellow bees‘-wax, and as it begins to
cool dip the bottles up to the rim around the


To fine white wine, take (for one hogshead) an
ounce and a half of isinglass dissolved in a pint
and a half of water and thinned With the wine.
Red wines are fined with the whites of eggs in
the proportion of twelve or sixteen to the pipe.
They should be beaten to a stiff froth, and a pint
of wine and water added before pouring into the


The temperature of the place where wine is
kept should be as near 50 degrees Fahrenheit as
possible. The bottles should be laid on the side
with the labels up, that they may be disturbed as
little as possible. The length of time wines may
be kept depends upon their strength. It may be
roughly stated that clarets and light wines are
good from three to ten years; Burgundies and
heavier wines from five to thirty years ; Madeira,
port and sherry for an almost indefinite time.

In serving wine do not ice it by putting ice
into the wine, but always put the bottles into a
vessel with the ice around them. When wines
are to be served of the temperature of the room,
they may be moderately warmed ; but it is better
to let them stand in the room before using, long
enough to acquire the right warmth.


Beer, German Bier, is a fermented liquor made

from malted grain. In Europe it is generally

made from barley, and in this country also from

wheat; hops being added to improve the flavor.

The more spirituous liquor made in England and
this country is called ale. German brewers
make a distinction between ale and beer on ac­
count of the different methods of fermentation;
ale being produced by rapid fermentation, while
beer is produced by a slow process in a cool
cellar. In this country the term lager-bier is ap­
plied to many kinds of beer made by the slow
process of fermentation, but not rightly, for it has
not lain long enough to acquire that name, and
is known among brewers as schenkbier, or beer
ready to be drawn.

Edinburgh Ale.—Employ the best pale malt—1st,
mash two barrels per quarter, at 1830, mash .
three quarters of an hour, let it stand one hour,
and allow half an hour to run off the wort; 2d,
mash one barrel per quarter, at 1800, mash three
quarters of an hour, let it stand about three
quarters, and tap as before; 3d, mash one barrel
per quarter, at 1700, mash half an hour, let it
stand half an hour, and tap as before. The first
and second wort may be mixed together, boiling
them about an hour or an hour and a quarter
with a quantity of hops proportioned to the time
the ale is required to be kept. The first two
may be mixed together, at the heat of 6o°, and
the second should be fermented separately for
small-beer. The best hops should be used in the
proportion of about four pounds for every quarter
of malt employed.

Porter—Brown StoutPale malt, two quarters;
amber and brown malt, of each one and a half
quarters; mash at three times with twelve, seven
and six barrels of water; boil with hops, fifty
pounds; set with yeast, twenty-nine pounds. Pro­
duct, seventeen barrels, or one and a half times
the malt.

Half and Half.In London this drink is made
by mixing half porter and half ale ; in America,
it is made by mixing half new and half old ale.

Philadelphia Beer.Take thirty gallons water;
brown sugar, twenty pounds; ginger-root, bruised,
one quarter pound; cream of tartar, one and a
quarter pounds; carbonate of soda, three ounces;
oil of lemon cut in a little alcohol, one teaspoon-
ful; the whites of ten eggs, well beaten; hops,
two ounces ; yeast, one quart. The ginger-root
and hops should be boiled for twenty or thirty
minutes in enough of the water to make all milk-
warm, then strained into the rest and the yeast
added and allowed to work itself clear; then

Belfast Ginger Ale.Double-refined sugar, po
dered, one pound ; bicarbonate of soda, three and
a half ounces; citric acid, four and a half ounces ;
concentrated essence of ginger, one and a half
ounces ; essence of cayenne, two drachms; es­
sence of lemon, forty drops. The soda, acid and
I sugar must be carefully dried separately at a

FERMENTED AND OTHER BEVERAGES.                                   31

temperature not exceeding 1200 ; and the sugar
before drying must be thoroughly incorporated
with the essences, to which a small quantity of
caramel, as color, may be added. The whole
forms a powder, a dessertspoonful of which will
make a tumblerful of the drink.

Small-Beer.—A handful of hops to a pail of
water, a pint of bran, add half a pint of molasses,
a cup of yeast, and a spoonful of ginger.

Spruce and Ginger Beer.Cold water, ten gal­
lons; boiling water, eleven gallons; mix in a
barrel; add molasses, thirty pounds, or brown
sugar, twenty-four pounds; oil of spruce or any
oil of which you wish the flavor, one ounce; add
one pint yeast, ferment, bottle in two or three
days. If you wish white spruce beer, use lump
sugar ; for ginger flavor, use seventeen ounces
ginger-root, bruised, and a few hops; boil for
thirty minutes in three gallons of the water,
strain and mix well; let it stand two hours and
bottle, using yeast, of course, as before.

Root Beer.Water, ten gallons, heat to 6o° Fah­
renheit, then add three gallons molasses; let it
stand two hours, pour it into a bowl and add
powdered or bruised sassafras and wintergreen
bark, of each a half pound; yeast, one pint;
bruised sarsaparilla root, half pound; add water
enough to make twenty-five gallons in all. Fer­
ment for twelve hours, then bottle.

Ottawa Beer and Ginger Ale.Ottawa beer is made
by using eight ounces of a fluid extract which con­
tains the concentrated strength of four pounds
of thirteen different roots and barks, added to
one gallon syrup which is mixed with fourteen
gallons water, into which carbonic­ acid gas is
forced at a pressure of eighty pounds to the
square inch. Ginger Ale is made in the same
way, except that four ounces of extract is suffi­
cient. When the ginger is really used, an extract
deprived of resinous impurities is made use of,
which gives a clear amber-colored drink.


Catawba Wine.Extract the juice from the
grapes in a cider-press or by squeezing them In a
cheese-cloth ; to one and a half quarts of juice
add two and a half pounds of white sugar, and
fill up the gallon with water. The bung should
be left open till fermentation ceases.

Elderberry Wine.Proceed the same as for Ca-
tawba wine, substituting brown sugar for white.

Currant Wine.Select ripe currants, stem them,
mash thoroughly, and strain. To one gallon of
the juice add two of water, and to each gallon
of this mixture add four pounds of sugar, a gill
of brandy and a quarter ounce of powdered
alum ; put the whole into a clean cask to ferment.
In three to four months draw off, add another
gill of brandy, and bottle.

Blackberry Wine.Wash the berries, and pour
one quart of boiling water to each gallon. Let
the mixture stand twenty-four hours, stirring oc­
casionally ; then strain and measure into a keg,
adding two pounds sugar, and good rye whiskey
one pint, or best alcohol half pint, to each gallon.
Cork tight, and put away for use. Some like
it best with a quart of brandy added to every
six gallons; some prefer it without brandy.
After fermentation, take four ounces of isinglass
dissolved in one pint of the wine, and put to
each barrel, which will fine and clear it: when it
must be drawn into clean casks, or bottled,
which is preferable.

Raisin Wine equal to Sherry.Boil the proper
quantity of water and let it stand till cold. To
each gallon of this add four pounds of chopped
raisins, previously well washed and freed from
stalks; let the whole stand for one month, stir­
ring frequently; then remove the raisins, and
bung up closely for one month more; then rack
into another vessel, leaving all sediment behind,
and repeat till it becomes fine; then to every
ten gallons add six pounds of fine sugar and one
dozen of good oranges, the rinds being pared
very thin and infused in two quarts of brandy,
which should be added to the liquor at its last
racking. Let the whole stand three months in
the cask, then bottle. It should remain bottled
twelve months. To give it the flavor of Madeira
when it is in the cask, put in a couple of green
citrons, and let them remain till the wine is bot­

Ginger Wine.Water, ten gallons; lump sugar,
twenty pounds; bruised ginger, eight ounces;
three or four eggs. Boil well and skim; then
pour hot on six or seven lemons cut in slices,
macerate for two hours ; then rack and ferment;
next add spirit, two quarts, and afterwards finings,
one pint; rummage well. To make the color,
boil half ounce saleratus and half ounce alum in
one pint water till you get a bright red color.

Unfermented Wine.To make this, boil grapes
of any kind over a slow fire till the pulp has
thoroughly separated from the skin, adding just
enough water to prevent burning at the bottom
of the vessel, then press the juice through a fine
cloth and add one quarter its weight of sugar,
mix well, bring the juice to the boiling point
once more, and can it in air­tight jars. This
wine will keep sweet for years, and has the color
of port.

American Champagne.—-Good cider (crab-apple
cider is the best), seven gallons; best fourth-
proof brandy, one quart; genuine champagne
wine, five pints ; milk, one gallon; bitartrate of
potassa, two ounces. Mix, let stand a short
time; bottle while fermenting. An excellent
[ imitation.

32                                                      THE FRIEND OF ALL.

Champagne Cider.—Good pale cider, one hogs­ I
head; spirits, three gallons ; sugar, twenty
pounds; mix, and let it stand one fortnight;
then fine with skimmed milk, half a gallon ; this
will be very pale, and a similar article, when
properly bottled and labeled, opens so brisk that
even good judges have mistaken it for genuine

Sweet cider can be kept fresh and sparkling
by heating it, not boiling it, but heating until al­
most boiling, and then bottling it, and sealing
tight at once. It is advisable to put one or two
raisins in each bottle.

Soda Syrups.—Loaf or crushed sugar, eight
pounds; pure water, one gallon ; gum arabic, two
ounces ; mix in a brass or copper kettle. Boil
until the gum is dissolved, then skim and strain
through white flannel, after which add tartaric
acid, five and a half ounces ; dissolve in hot
water; to flavor, use extract of lemon, orange,
vanilla, rose, sarsaparilla, strawberry, etc. etc.,
half ounce or to your taste. If you use juice of
lemon, add two and a half pounds of sugar to a
pint—you do not need any tartaric acid with it;
now use two tablespoonfuls of syrup to three
quarters of a tumbler of water and one third tea-
spoonful of super-carbonate of soda, made fine.
Drink quick. For soda fountains, one ounce of
super-carbonate of soda is used to one gallon of
water. For charged fountains no acids are
needed in the syrups.

Cream Soda.—Loaf sugar, ten pounds; water,
three gallons ; warm gradually so as not to burn;
good rich cream, two quarts ; extract vanilla, one
and a half ounces; extract nutmeg, half ounce ;
tartaric acid, four ounces. Just bring to a boil­
ing heat, for if you cook it any length of time
it will crystallize. Use four or five spoonfuls of
this syrup instead of three as in other syrups ;
put half teaspoonful of soda to a glass, if used
without a fountain. For charged fountains no
acid is used.

Ginger Pop.Take one pound white lump
sugar, one ounce cream tartar, one ounce gin­
ger, bruised, and one lemon cut in slices; put
all into an earthen pot, and pour over them one
and a half gallons of boiling water ; when luke­
warm, toast a slice of bread, spread it thickly
with yeast, and put into the liquor. Mix with it
the white of one egg and the crushed shell. Let
it stand till the next day, then strain and bottle.
It will be ready for use in a few days.

Anisette Cordial, 40 Gallons.Put in a barrel
thirteen gallons 75 per cent alcohol; dissolve
three and a half ounces essence of green anise-
seed in one gallon 95 per cent alcohol, and add
half gallon orange-flower water, eight or ten
drops infusion of mace and five drops essence of
cinnamon; then put in the barrel twenty-six

gallons sugar syrup, 25 degrees Baumé; stir
fifteen minutes, and let it rest four or five days ;
then filter. Add two or three sheets of filtering-

For a small quantity, take quarter of an ounce
of anise-seed ; one and a half pounds of refined
sugar; rectified spirits, two gallons; alum, quar­
ter of an ounce. Mix thoroughly, then bottle.

Peppermint Cordial.Good whiskey, ten gallons;
water, ten gallons ; white sugar, ten pounds; oil
peppermint, one ounce, in one pint alcohol; one
pound flour well worked in the fluid ; half pound
burned sugar to color. Mix, and let it stand one
week before using. Other oil in place of pepper­
mint, and you have any flavor desired.

Apple Toddy.One tablespoonful of fine white
sugar, one wineglass of cider brandy, half of a
baked apple. Fill the glass two thirds full of
boiling water, and grate a little nutmeg on top.

Glasgow Punch,Melt lump sugar in cold water,
with the juice of a couple of lemons, passed
through a fine wire strainer; then add old Ja­
maica rum, one part of rum to five of the liquid.
Milk Punch.One tablespoonful of fine white
sugar, two tablespoonfuls of water, one wine-glass
of Cognac brandy, half wine-glass of Santa Cruz
rum, one eighth tumblerful of shaved ice; fill with
milk. Shake the ingredients well together, and
grate a little nutmeg on top. To make it hot, use
hot milk and no ice.

Mint Julep.—One tablespoonful white pulverized
sugar, two and a half tablespoonfuls water ; mix
well with a spoon. Take three or four sprigs of
fresh mint, press them well in the sugar and
water, add one and a half wine-glasses of Cognac
j brandy, and fill the glass with shaved ice; then
draw out the sprigs of mint and insert them in
the ice with the stems downwards, so that the
leaves will be above in the shape of a bouquet;
arrange berries and small pieces of sliced orange
on top in a tasty manner, dash with Jamaica
rum, and sprinkle sugar on top. Sip with a
glass tube or straw.

Lemonade.Half a pound of granulated sugar,
one gill of lemon-juice free from seeds, one
quart of water; mix the three ingredients. Add
ice before serving. Lemons should be well rolled
before squeezing.

Concentrated Lemonade.Take essence of lemon,
quarter of an ounce ; citric acid, two ounces;
lump sugar three and a half pounds ; water, one
quart. Put the sugar into the water when cold,
boil it, then pour it hot on the acids. Bottle it
when cool. When serving, put a teaspoonfuI of
syrup into a tumbler of water.

Milk Lemonade.—Half a pound of sugar in a
quart of boiling water; add one gill of lemon-
juice, one gill of sherry and a pint of milk. Stir
I the whole well together. Strain till clear.

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