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94 THE FRIEND OF ALL.
Creeper, Virginia.................... 95
Cuttings ............................. 95
Forcing, and Cuttings............... 94
Leading Flowers..................... 95
Lice, Plant........................... 94
Manuring and Draining.............. 94
Plants, Succession of................. 94
Succession of Plants................. 94
Treatment, Winter................... 94
Varieties of Geranium .............. 96
Varieties of Roses............. ..... 95
Virginia Creeper..................... 95
Winter Treatment................... 95
SUCCESSION OF PLANTS.
With a certain amount of care, flowers may be
made to grow anywhere. In general, they do
best where they have the early morning sun and
are sheltered from the northeast winds. The
laying out of a garden as to the selection and
arrangement of flowers, shrubs, etc., must depend
upon the size and surroundings. Elaborate mo
saic beds and any geometrical arrangements are
always to be avoided, being more mathematical
than beautiful. Perhaps the most satisfactory
selection of plants is, two or more varieties (ac
cording to the size of garden) of spring, summer
and autumn flowers. These will give pleasure
throughout the three seasons. But care should
be taken to so arrange them that there will not
be too prominent a gap in any bed from one
season to the next. For short plants a bed neatly
cut in the grass-plot gives perhaps the prettiest
effect. Raised beds are objectionable from the
fact that moisture runs off from them very
quickly and washes down the edges.
The best soil for all flowers is a mellow loam.
A sandy loose soil may be brought to a good
condition by a dressing of clay and well-rotted
manure. A clayey soil should be treated in the
same way, substituting sand for clay. In either
case the dressing should be well spaded in.
MANURING AND DRAINING.
Every garden should be well manured in the
autumn, and the manure worked in in the spring.
If the natural drainage is not good, artificial
drains should be dug, as no garden can do well
that remains long wet after it has rained. When
seeds are to be planted, the ground should be
rubbed till it is soft and powdery. Small seed
may be planted on top and a little earth dusted
over them. For larger ones holes should be
drilled, the seeds planted and covered. If the
weather is dry, water them a little at night; but
never plant seeds if it is wet.
The same soil used for gardens may be taken
for pot-plants. It should always be sifted till it
is very light, and a good portion of mold from
the woods added. The soil should be removed
every year after the plants have finished blos
soming, and fresh soil given. In repotting leave
a little earth around the roots, and handle the
plant carefully. In transplanting leave the earth
around the roots, and place in holes made in the
earth a little lower than it was before, water, and
cover with a flowerpot or piece of paper for a
day or two.
There is a diversity of opinion about the
watering of garden-plants, but we firmly believe
that a thorough watering every few days is of
great benefit, particularly in the hottest months
of the summer.
Aphides, or plant-lice, and caterpillars are the
pest of a garden, and if they are once allowed a
foothold will have to be diligently fought and be
entirely destroyed. If a plant is sprinkled with
water at night or morning and hellebore shaken
over it, a good result will follow; but the surest
way is to syringe with a hose, and then rake off
the earth and destroy the insects.
FORCING, AND CUTTINGS.
When plants refuse to blossom, change the
soil and cut off some of the roots. This forces
flowers by checking the woody growth. While
a plant is blossoming is the best time to take
cuttings, as they are then most ready to send out
roots. Never transplant at this time. Seeds
should not be allowed to ripen, as they exhaust
the plant. Shrubs bloom from the terminal
point, and if pinched off after flowering will pro
duce new branches next year.
Plants should never be allowed to blossom in
the winter if they are to be put into the garden
for summer blossoming. Nearly all woody
plants and bulbs may be placed in a cellar where
potatoes will not freeze, and sods laid over them
grass side up. Salvias may be treated the same
as geraniums. Plants left in the ground should
be well protected with straw.
House-plants should only be watered enough
to keep them fresh. Many do not have suffi
cient sunlight and air to bear much wetting. If
a plant has become spindling, cut off the head,
put the pot in a deep box of sand and give it
plenty of sunlight.
In this article only a few points can be given.
Those who wish to go more deeply into the sub
ject should study books entirely devoted to the
art. The following list indicates the particular
care of a few favorite flowers.
Virginia Creeper, or Woodbine.—This vine is very
pretty at all times, but more particularly in the
fall, when the leaves turn to a bright red and the
bunches of slate-colored berries are formed. It
is most useful in any garden to cover unsightly
objects and make a background for flowering
plants. It may be raised from seeds or cuttings,
and requires little attention.
Roses.—The treatment of roses for indoor
culture is the same as for other plants: a good
supply of sunlight and rich soil. Out-of-doors,
they need a moist, well-manured soil, but not
wet. If a compost of loam, a little sand and
well-rotted cow-manure, is put on them every
spring before the buds start, the branches will
grow finely. The pruning of roses is very im
portant. The old wood should be cut away,
and if the bush is thrifty some of the new wood.
This will cause new shoots to spring up from
the roots, and the new wood produces the fin
est blossoms. Always cut the flower-stalks as
soon as the leaves fall, for a great deal of strength
goes to form the seeds. It is also good to trim
off the weak shoots as soon as the plant is done
flowering, so as to give the remaining branches
air and light on all sides. This will cause the
autumn flowers to develop more perfectly, and
the summer-flowering kinds will be finer next
As soon as the plants have done flowering,
turn the soil back from the roots and spread on
a little rotted cow-manure, throw back the soil,
and water occasionally if the weather is hot and
dry. Sods should never be placed around roses
planted in lawns, as they prevent the air from
getting to the roots, and absorb moisture.
Hardy roses may be planted in October or No
vember. Tender ones do better planted in the
spring, for in the fall the roots rarely have time
to get well started. Manure well and water oc
casionally after setting plants out.
Cuttings of roses may be started in July or
August. Cut off a young shoot with some old
wood. Plant in sand an inch apart, leav
ing three or four eyes above. The sand should
be kept wet all the time, and in from two to
three weeks they will be ready to transplant.
The pest of rose-culture is a slug, which ap
pears in little white spots on the under side of
the leaves. These develop into worms, which
eat leaves and buds, and unless taken in season
will multiply to an alarming extent. To destroy
them shake powdered lime over the leaves while
the dew is on. This should be done as soon as
any sign or spot is noticed. The slugs first ap
pear in May, and after the worm is grown they
go into the ground and lie in a chrysalis state,
but appear in August with wings, and then lay
their eggs for the next season. It is therefore
a good plan to give a second sprinkling of pow
der to thoroughly eradicate them. White helle
bore or any good insect-powder may be used.
Of the thousands of varieties we will give a
few choice kinds.
China Roses:—Eugène Beauharnais, rich
crimson; Agrippina, deep crimson; Indica Alba,
white; Sanguinea, blood-red.
Tea Roses :—Bon Silene, purple shaded to
carmine; Alba Rosea, white, with rose center;
Cornelia Cook, canary; Devoniensis, creamy white;
Maréchal Neil, golden yellow, very fragrant;
Safrona, bright buff; White Tea, pure white,
blooms freely; Triomphe de Luxembourg, rose-
Bourbon Roses : — Empress Eugenie, deep
rose; Jupiter, dark purple; Malmaison, blush,
large and fine; Omar Pasha, deep carmine.
Hybrid Perpetuals:— Victor Verdin, full
carmine; Gen. Jacqueminot, bright red, very
large; La Reine; pure rose; Cardinal Patrizsi;
dark, velvety crimson.
Noisette Roses:—Gloire de Dijon, bronze
yellow, with orange center; Augusta, pale‘yellow;
Lamarque, large, pure white, very fine; Wash
Moss Roses (Annual):—English Moss, very
mossy, old variety; Adelaide, crimson.
Moss Roses (Perpetual):—Madame Edward
Ory, deep rose; Perpetual White, very fine.
Prairie Roses: (Hardy Climbers):—Balti-
more Belle, nearly white; Gem of the Prairies,
rose-crimson, very fragrant.
THE FRIEND OF ALL.
Geramams.—This plant is one of the most po
pular of the garden, and is easy to cultivate.
Plants may be obtained from a florist in every
stage of growth, and these with little trouble
may, by making cuttings, be multiplied to any
extent. House-plants may be grown from cut
tings taken in June or July and planted in small
pots filled with a compost of sand and loam, with
about two inches of the latter on the top. Plant
the cutting half its length, and keep it very wet
until it is rooted, and when the leaves appear
change to a larger pot of loam mixed plentifully
with manure, and by fall the plants will be in
good condition to produce winter blossoms. A
rich light loam is best suited to grow ge
raniums in the garden. Any one living in the
country can readily procure this by lifting the
sods in a pasture and collecting the earth under
them. To aid the blossoming, of the plant, dress
with liquid manure twice a week through the
Shrub geraniums are tender, and when placed
out-of-doors should have a good supply of sun
light, and be protected from strong winds. The
pots should be examined often, and any roots
that have grown through the bottom cut off.
It is also a good plan to repot a month after
they are put out, and then once more in August.
In doing this, remove as much earth as possible
without injuring the plant. The new pot should
be a little larger, and there should be a layer of
earth at the bottom before the plant is placed in
it. Water plentifully for a day or two. Except
the shrubby kinds, geraniums are hardy and
only need shelter from the frost. In dry weather
they may be watered plentifully.
Old plants that are not wanted in the house
for winter may be dug up before the frost comes,
the young shoots and buds cut off, the earth
shaken from the roots, and hung with their
heads downward in a cool dry cellar. In the
spring they can be put in boxes and placed in
the kitchen till the leaves are started, when they
are again ready for the garden.
Sweet-scented Geraniums :—The Rose and
the Oak-leaved were formerly the only kinds
cultivated, but there are now many varieties.
Some of these are: Lady Plymouth ; Graveolus ;
Odoratissimum ; Denticulatura.
Zonale Geraniums :—These are fine in col
oring and of quick growth. Good varieties are:
Christire, rose pink; General Grant, dazzling
scarlet, Blue Bells, magenta pink; King of Roses,
scarlet shaded to magenta.
Liliputian Zonales are dwarfs. The flowers
are very beautiful in color. Some of these are:
Little Gem, vermilion, with white center ; Little
Dear, rose, spotted white; Baby Boy, scarlet,
With white eye.
Double Geraniums :—The clusters of these
are large, and they do not drop their leaves as
the other varieties do. Good varieties are:
Gloire de Nancy, brilliant scarlet; Crown Prince,
bright rose; Émile Lemoine, cherry-carmine.
Pansy.—This plant is also called heartsease,
and is a general favorite. It dies down each
year, but springs up, from self-sown seeds, or
from the root, each spring. It needs abun
dant manuring, and in fact can hardly be en
riched too much. The bed should be partially
shaded, and watered every day. Watering once a
week, a tablespoonful of guano dissolved in a gal
lon of water, will improve the blossoms.
Heliotrope.—This plant blossoms plentifully
from June to October, and is easily propagated
by cuttings. A first year's cutting should be
pruned into one stem. It is easily trained into
a high bush by means of a trellis, though not
often seen so. This should be done by pruning
carefully to the central stem and allowing it to
head out gracefully. Plant cuttings early in the
spring in a rich soil. Potted heliotrope should
have the same soil and be repotted often. Some
of the best varieties are : Duc De Lavendry, rich
blue, with a dark eye ; Étoile de Marseilles, deep
violet, with white center; Madame Farilon, vio
let ; Garibaldi, nearly white.
Mignonette.—This is a hardy plant, and a flour
ishing. It will sow its own seed and spring up
in abundance the next season. To start a bed,
sow the seed late in the autumn.
Nasturtium.—This is a showy plant, and will
grow with little care in any good soil. The pods
should be gathered in August for early spring
Lily.—This is a large family, and contains many
beautiful varieties. The most popular of these
is the Lily of the Valley. It will grow in any
shady part of the garden, and blossom profusely
with little care. The bulbs should be planted in
the fall. In general, lilies will bear a large
amount of manure. During the winter the bulbs
may be protected by a covering of coarse ma
Salvia.—This is one of the most beautiful of
the fall plants. It grows to a bush from four to
five feet high, and in September and October is
covered with tassels of bright scarlet or blue
flowers. It may be raised from seeds, but it is
better to purchase a plant from the florist. Dur
ing the winter salvias may be treated like gera
Chrysanthemum.—This flower no garden should
be without. It is hardy, and blooms very late in
the season. It grows best in a rich light soil,
and a little sand added is of benefit. Cuttings
may be made, in August or after blooming, from
the shoots and up by the roots.
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