VET INDEX |
|ANIMAL INDEX - OLD VET TREATMENTS AND REMEDIES.
FARMING INDEX - OLD FARM PRACTICES AND REMEDIES FOR ANIMALS, PLANTS AND FIXING THINGS.
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PART II.— THE DOG IN DISEASE.
Fevers.—The disease known as fever is indi
cated by an elevation of temperature, and the symp
toms are rapid pulse, perspiration and diminished
The Pulse—This is found in the under part of
the back leg of the dog, near the body, although
frequently the pulse can be felt through the chest
wall. If the dog is of an excitable nature he must
be quieted when the pulse is taken. At birth it is
very rapid, being from 130 to 160; after one year,
from 70 to 90.
It is difficult to regulate the size of a dose of
medicine for a dog; but for a full-grown St. Ber
nard it should be the same as for an adult human
being; and for small dogs it should be about the
same as for a child. For puppies the less medicine
the better. The giving of medicine is sometimes
very difficult, and the easiest way is as follows :
Put the animal in a corner, open the mouth with
the fingers, press the jaws apart, pouring the medi
cine, if a liquid, from a spoon down the throat, as
far back as possible. To prevent him spitting it out,
hold his head up high until he is compelled to
swallow it. Pills are usually easily given. Fre
quently medicine can be given by putting it in the
food or drinking water. After administering any
dose the dog should be petted and encouraged, so
that he will not dread it the next time he takes it.
Diet and Care of the Sick.—Dogs are usually very
wise in the knowledge of their stomachs, refusing
to eat when the digestion is disordered. When too
sick to care for his regular food, broths, milk, eggs
and rice in various forms may be used ; but if the
dog gets so very ill that he refuses to eat anything,
there should be some very strong broth prepared,
and give a spoonful of this with a few drops of wine,
or some other stimulant, every hour to keep up
strength until he is better.
Disinfection.—To prevent disease an animal must
be kept sweet and clean and free from vermin.
Good preparations to use are “sanitas sawdust”
and “ creosin.”
Respiratory Diseases.—All these diseases, espe
cially those having acute inflammation, are much
alike. They are frequently caused by exposure to
cold, changes in temperature, or sleeping in cold,
damp kennels. Draughts must absolutely be
avoided. Digitalis and alcoholic stimulants in
small doses are found to be useful for a weak heart;
for a dog's strength must be maintained at all
Influenza.—This disease is known also by the
the name of epizootic, and is an inflammation of
the mucous membrane of the head, sometimes end
ing in pneumonia. The symptoms are sneezing,
dryness and burning, high temperature and pros
tration; the eyes are affected and a watery sub
stance comes from the nose and eyes. Quinine
with bromide potassium may be used at the begin
ning. If depressed, give stimulants.
Acute Laryngitis.—This may result from a cold or
tightening of the chain about a dog's neck. Symp
toms are, difficulty in swallowing, change in the
voice of the dog, and a husky cough. The bowels
must be kept open, and the affected parts be irri
tated by painting over with turpentine or coal oil.
Bronchitis.—This is an inflammation of the mu
cous membrane of the bronchial tubes. Symptoms
are swallowing and dryness of the lining of the
tubes with mucus discharge. The dog cannot
expectorate, as in the case of man, but frequently
vomits, which expells the discharge ; other symp-
toms are a cough and catarrh of the eyes and nose.
At the beginning give twenty grains sulphate or
zinc; if not effective, follow by two to four drams
of wine of ipecacuanha. With a dry cough one can
choose from the following remedies: viz., ipecac
uanha, ammonia, spirits of chloroform, paregoric
and squills. When the acute stage has passed Nux
vomica may be used. When a dog has become
enfeebled by disease he may be allowed a smali.
amount of alcoholic stimulants.
Pneumonia.—This is an inflammation of one or
both lobes of the lungs. May be caused by wet
ting, cold, etc. It is a disease that carries off a I
large number of dogs, and the patient's vitality is
the main chance for recovery. The symptoms are
troubled breathing, red eyes, dry nose, difficulty
in lying down, on account of an attempt to keep his
head level. This disease is usually brought on with
a chill, the pulse is rapid, and the temperature may
be as high as 1060 F. When the dog coughs up
mucus colored with blood, pneumonia is clearly
the disease. An excellent thing is to make a close
fitting jacket which covers the chest, absorbs the
moisture from the dog's skin, and protects it from
change in temperature. Blistering is never neces
sary. The temperature of the surroundings should
not exceed 6o°. The food must be light and of
largely a fluid nature. If the pulse is very rapid,
aconite may be given. Give the dog plenty of
water and buttermilk, if he will drink it. At night,
if restless, give fifteen grains of Dover's powder.
Give the same quantity of bromide potassium.
Whisky and brandy given with eggnog are very
useful. If the heart should become weak five drops
of the tincture of digitalis should be given for a dog
of medium size.
Asthma.—This is not common in puppies, but
frequently comes to pet dogs, who are overfed and
not allowed much exercise. Symptoms, wheezy
respiration and difficulty in breathing. Tar may
be burned to the dog‘s relief sometimes.
To relieve the liver and digestive organs give a
compound cathartic pill at night with Epsom salts
in the morning. Iodide potassium may produce
a cure. From one to five grains should be given.
DISEASES OF THE BLOOD.
Anaemia.—Is an impoverished condition of the
blood, and may be caused by damp kennels and ill
feeding. Make the surroundings as hygienic as
possible, and feed the most nutritious food. Muri-
ated tincture of iron, cod-liver oil, and citrate of
iron may be useful.
DISEASES OF THE MOUTH.
Warts may be cut, but the result is apt to be
injurious. Nitrate of silver is the safest remedy ;
also strong acetic acid.
Teeth.—Bones, crusts and other hard food help
to keep the teeth clean. It is frequently necessary
to use a brush in order to keep the tartar from the
teeth. Gums, if neglected, become softened and
abscesses may appear. When this is the case some
of the teeth may require to be removed, or the
gums to be lanced. If the teeth break off, leaving
stumps that may cause trouble later on, the roots
should be extracted. In puppies, if the first teeth
do not drop out in proper season, they must be
removed to make way for the second set.
Disorders of the Digestive Organs.—Vomiting is
the easiest way for a dog to save himself from in
digestion, and proves that the food has not suited
him. Eating grass is a dog‘s remedy for indiges
tion. If a dog's appetite is capricious, it is best to
find if there is any cause for it. Organic disease,
or worms in the feces, are sure indications of his
internal condition ; and the feces or stools should
never be so stiff as to cause him to strain to pass
them, nor so fluid as to run in a stream.
Diarrhea—Is due either to an excess of or unsuit
able food. If it cannot be controlled by dieting
and rest, easily digested food must be given.
Opiates and astringents must only be used after a
good dose of castor-oil.
Obstruction.—May be caused by continued con
stipation and is serious. Try enemas of warm
soap-supls and castor-oil, kneeding the abdomen if
Constipation.—Dogs infrequently exercised are
liable to this. Boiled liver is excellent, combined
with exercise, or Epsom salts in the morning.
Coarse flour should be used in the making of bread
Colic.—May be caused by damp, wet and worms,
and is detected by symptoms of uneasiness, moan
ing, sharp cries, arched back and difficulty in walk
ing. Give castor-oil with twenty drops of laudanum.
If the bowels do not move, an enema is necessary ;
and if not successful, try twenty drops of chloro-
dyne, or a dram of spirits of chloroform, with the
same amouut of aromatic spirits of ammonia, diluted
Inflammation of the Digestive Organs.—Diseases of
the alimentary canal are gastritis, or the inflamma
tion of the stomach ; enteritis, or inflammation of
the small intestines ; dysentery, or inflammation of
the large intestines ; and peritonitis, or inflamma
tion of the serous covering of the abdominal walls.
Symptoms.—Catarrh and a dry state of the mu
cous membrane. Caused by unhealthy surround
ings, damp and cold, unsuitable food and nervous
shock. First vomiting, change of expression and
attitude, diarrhea or constipation, sensitiveness of
the abdominal walls, elevated temperature, quick
ened pulse and respiration. In advanced cases,
delirium and stupor. A dog must have absolute
quiet, rest of body and mind, and his strength
kept up by either suitable feeding or stimulants.
The symptoms of gastritis are, vomiting first,
tenderness and pain. There is an inclination to lie
stretched out on the belly.
Enteritis is not always clearly distinguished, but
I calls the attention to the intestines. Dysentery,
if not severe, resembles diarrhea.
Peritonitis.—Is marked by constipation, with
great pain and tenderness, and a rapid pulse.
Dogs should be separated from other dogs, and
given a comfortable bed. Food should be given in
THE FRIEND OF ALL
small quantities, but frequently, beginning with
liquid, going to more solid food. Lime-water is a
good thing to add to the drinking-water or milk
which the dog drinks. To start vomiting, give
small pieces of ice or very small doses of carbolic
acid, one-half to one grain, in a little ice-water.
Dysentery.—May be treated much the same as
diarrhea. In the former, however, it is very bene
ficial to inject boiled starch, with from twenty to
forty drops of laudanum, and a dessertspoonful of
listerine, retaining the whole within the bowels by
holding the hand covered with a soft cloth against
the anus for ten minutes. It is considered wise in
this case, as well as in diarrhea, to use castor-oil
or silver buckthorn. Make sure that the bowels
are free from any offensive matter.
Dysentery become Chronic.—Is most obstinate to
cure. In this case, use small doses of ipecacuanha,
or three to eight drops of wine. If constipation
exists, with either gastritis or enteritis, use enemas.
While the symptoms are acute in peritonitis, opium
is most valuable. Hot applications are also useful.
If the heart fails, stimulants should be given ; milk,
egg and brandy making a good preparation. For
a time the dog should be fed three times a day, but
in small quantities, and the greatest care must be
taken of him in exercising, housing, etc.
Disease of the Liver.—Hepatitis, or inflammation
of the liver, is hard to diagnose.
Symptoms.—Indigestion, pain, bad breath, and
lying on the chest or stomach, and characteristic
stools. Attention should be called especially to
the diet and surroundings.
Diseases around the Anus.—Prolapse of the rec
tum. Extrusion of a portion of the gut. The first
thing is to put back the gut as soon as possible.
It should be washed clean with an antiseptic solu
tion of weak carbolic acid, then press gently back,
the hind part of the body being raised, and some
cold water injected, and retained for a short time.
If, after this, the intestines still protrude, a truss
must be used, and the dog not allowed to exercise.
Piles.—These occur frequently in old dogs, espe
cially if the circulation is weak. If the dog strains,
licks the anus, and drags the hind parts, it should
lead one to suspect piles. If the piles are internal
(if external, a surgeon will be necessary), soft food,
such as oatmeal or porridge, should be given, to
which add laxatives, one of the best of which is
sulphur, which can be mixed up with the food.
External piles may be washed with a combination
of tannic acid, glycerine, laudanum, and water.
This failing, surgical measures will be necessary.
Retention of Urine.—May ensue from swelling of
the mucous membrane of the urethra, enlargement
of the prostate glands, or swelling of this part from
sexual excitement or injury. Usually, quiet will
help this ; but if not, and the bladder is enlarged, a
warm bath should be taken, the dog being made to
sit on his haunches in a tub with water as hot as it
can be borne, to reach above his loins, for twenty
minutes or so.
DISEASES OF THE GENITAL ORGANS.
Balanitis or Inflammation of the Sheath Covering
the Penis.—The sheath becomes swollen and sen
sitive, and soon a muco-purulent discharge is no
ticed. The sheath must be kept clean by frequent
washing with warm water; and if this is not suffi
cient, use such soothing solutions as tannic acid,
sulphate of zinc, acetate of lead, and insert a little
surgeon's lint, dipped in the solution, within the
sheath for twenty minutes.
Complications Attending Parturition.—These oc
cur only when the bitch has been improperly at
tended during gestation, or when the sire was too
large for the dam, and the young resemble him in
size. Regular examinations of the bitch may be
made by insertion of the finger into the vagina,
but the fewer examinations the better. However,
if it becomes necessary the hands must be thor
oughly washed, disinfected, and the examining fin
ger anointed with carbolized oil or vaseline. In
whelping for the first time a bitch is likely to be
longer in giving birth to the first puppy ; but so long
as there is no lack of muscular power in the uterus,
no discharge or symptom of a dead puppy, patience
is all that is necessary.
Malpresentations.—Occur very seldom. If the
effort of the bitch is not sufficient to remove the
puppy, the belly may be pressed and some parts of
it brought within reach of the finger. If it should
be dead the sooner it is removed the better.
Use of Instruments.—Is not to be desired. Ergot
of rye is exceedingly useful to increase the uterine
After a Bitch Whelps.—Cleanse her with a weak
solution of carbolic acid, dry her well and put the
puppies at her breast. Should the mammary glands
be swollen or caked, they must be milked, softening
with warm oil. To harden the nipples, wash two
days before whelping with alcohol.
DISEASES OF THE EAR.
Canker.—External.—This is an inflammation of
the inner part of the outside ear, and if not stopped
may extend into the inside. The dog shakes his
head, scratches his ear, and a kind of husk appears,
which drys and forms into scabs. Wet, cold, and
improper feeding cause this. The first thing is to
thoroughly clean the ear, bathing with warm water “
and lard. Also use a syringe to clean the ear, but
no probes ; pointed instruments or cold liquids must
never be used. Increase the exercise and restrict
the diet. Well-boiled vegetables, carrots, turnips,
parsnips, etc., make a good diet.
Make a thin muslin cap for the dog to wear over
his head to prevent him shaking his ears. Touch
the sore every other day with tincture of muriate
of iron, and apply iodoform ointment two or three
times a day.
Ophthalmia.—Is a simple inflammation caused
by some foreign substance getting into the eye, a
blow or scratch, and is frequently found in dis
temper and skin diseases. The animal has a watery
appearance about his eyes, winking and showing a
strong dislike for light. If the inflammation is not
reduced, a whitish film forms, followed by ulcera-
tion. Warm water might be allowed to trickle
through a sponge into the eyes, and a hot fomenta
tion medicated with belladonna laid on the eyes.
A solution of nitrate of silver, of from ten to twenty
grains to the ounce of water, may be applied with a
Hydrophobia.—This is frequently mistaken for a
fit, and many valuable dogs have been killed through
It is a disease of the nervous system, and the
cause is a poison in the saliva.
Symptoms.—First quietness, shyness, and an in
clination to get away; but sooner or later he begins
to show excitement. He is either more or less
affectionate than usual, and the appetite is abnor
mal, the animal swallowing everything that comes
in his way. The voice is changed to a short, quick
bark, which ends in a howl or moan. In the excit
able state he will roam over the country at a jog-
trot, head down, tongue out, but not of necessity
frothing at the mouth, yet snapping at anything
that comes in his way. This is an unconscious
action. He will not eat, as a rule, nor touch water.
Fits.—A dog shows no premonitory symptoms
except a slight quivering of the muscles, then he
falls upon his side, losing consciousness. The limbs
work violently, the eyes set, and there is frothing
at the mouth. There is no danger from him so
long as you do not attempt to touch him, and the
best treatment is to put cold water on his head and
keep the body warm. Bromide is also good.
Meningitis.—It may be either spinal, cerebral or
both. The cause is usually extreme heat or cold,
or the result of blows. The dog shows extreme
sensitiveness, followed by a stupor, and in severe
cases by paralysis of the rear end of the body.
The bowels should be kept open, the fever re
duced by cold applications on the head, and the
dog should be allowed to lie in a secluded corner on
a rug or piece of carpet in a cool temperature and
be left alone as much as possible. The strength
must be kept up at any rate ; and if the dog refuses
to eat oatmeal, porridge, etc, strong broth must be
given in small doses every hour or two.
Skin Diseases.—Mange is divided into two
classes, follicular mange and sarcoptic mange.
Follicular Mange.—Though not as troublesome,
causes inflammation, and is accompanied by a fetid
Sarcoptic Mange.—Is caused by the female ver
min boring into the skin, laying eggs, which, when
hatched, send out young in every direction. This
is very contagious, more so than the former, and
causes the hair to come off.
Eczema.—This is a disease of the skin which is
commonly thought to be mange. One kind comes
at the beginning of hot weather, and stays until the
frost comes. It can be cured, but is very per
sistent in returning each year. Blood medicines
are of real assistance, the trouble being within;
and internal remedies should be used rather than
A long-haired dog should be clipped in summer
to prevent this eczema. Scabs may be softened
by washing in water containing a little washing
soda. Powdered sulphur dusted through the hair
The bowels should be kept open, and cooling
foods used. Sulphur may also be put in the drink
ing-water, and very little meat should be given.
To allay the irritation the following may be used:
Sodium carbonate, or bicarbonate, or borax, of
the strength of about ten grains to the ounce of
To increase the growth of hair more blood and
energy are necessary, so that friction and stimulat
ing applications are to be recommended; such as
cocoanut oil, or a combination of this oil with coal
oil and olive oil in equal parts.
Worms.—Puppies are especially subject to this,
and death is not an uncommon result. Round
worms are most to be feared.
Symptoms.—Restless, disturbed slumber, cough,
unpleasant breath, nausea, diarrhea, caked nose,
the animal swallowing foreign substances, pallid
and bloated appearance of the abdomen while thin
For the tapeworm use areca, kousso, pomegran
ate, turpentine and oil male fern.
For the round worm use worm-seed oil, worm
wood, calomel, kousso, hellebore. Pink and senna
is an effective remedy.
Fleas.—Constant vigilance is the only way to
keep dogs free from fleas. If in small quantities,
they can be caught and killed, or the animal may
be dusted by means of a little bellows with Persian
powder. Wash the dog in carbolic soap.
Lice.—Can be as easily destroyed as fleas. Comb
ing of the coat will also greatly help.
Rheumatism.—This often appears in the joints of
the legs. The dog shows a desire to lie quietly in
a warm spot and walks with a limp. Keep the ani
mal in a warm, dry room ; open the bowels, and
give rhux tox and iodide of potash. Lime-water
should be added to the drinking-water, and nitrate
of potash when fever exists.
Distemper.—This is a disease which it is much
better for the dog to have when a puppy than when
352 THE FRIEND OF ALL
he is grown. It is usually caused by a cold, and it
In the early stages the symptoms are, dullness,
loss of appetite, sneezing, chills, fever, undue mois
ture of nose, congestion of the eyes, nausea, cough,
and vomiting, with a desire to lie in a warm place.
These are followed by muco-purulent discharge from
the eyes and nose, labored respiration, constipation
or obstinate diarrhea. The animal should be given
a warm, dry place and hygienic conditions strictly
observed. Avoid draughts. The bedding should
be changed daily, and the apartment disinfected
two or three times a week. Feed on easily digested
food, such as, beef-tea, mutton-broth, etc., and keep
cold water at all times within reach of the animal.
If he is constipated, give warm water and glycerine
and perhaps a dose of castor-oil. Should the
bowels become too loose, feed on farinaceous food,
arrowroot or corn-starch with well-boiled milk.
The eyes and nose should be bathed to keep
them free from mucus, and to keep down the in
flammation, and the nose must be kept clear of any
Sprains or Bruises.—The treatment consists in
rest, cooling lotions, and iced cloths. If inflam
mation has begun, hot fomentations, medicated
with belladonna, will be useful.
Fractures and Dislocations.—These should be
attended to at once. The part of the body affected
should be bound up. If a fracture, it should be
set; if a dislocation, reduced, and the dog kept as
quiet as possible.
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