VET INDEX |
|ANIMAL INDEX - OLD VET TREATMENTS AND REMEDIES.
FARMING INDEX - OLD FARM PRACTICES AND REMEDIES FOR ANIMALS, PLANTS AND FIXING THINGS.
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DISEASES OF THE ALIMENTARY
THRUSH OR APHTHA
Is practically the same in cattle as in sheep. (See
sheep.) As in the human species, young animals, espe
cially sucking calves, are often attacked. The disease is
usually mild unless the vesicles or tiny bladders extend to
the gullet, stomach, or intestines.
Begin the treatment with a gentle aperient; then gar
gle with chlorate of potassium or alum, 15 grains to each
ounce of water, 2 or 3 times daily. Laxative diet. In
severe cases carbonate of ammonium and other stimulants
Also known as hove, hoove, blown, dew-blown, fog-
sickness, &c, is an important and common disease in
cattle and sheep, but is usually curable if taken in time
and properly treated. The swelling, as is shown in the
illustration, is on the left side.
The swelling is caused by gas in the first stomach (the
rumen or paunch), and is usually the result of injudicious
feeding. Sudden change from a poor diet to a rich one
is bad, for it causes overeating. The swelling is some
times chronic, when it may depend on the presence of
foreign bodies in the rumen.
Remedy.—Begin with a purge ; then give hyposulphite
of sodium, ˝ oz., water in proportion, and repeat several
times at intervals of from 2 to 4 hours.
2. Ether, 2 fluid oz., carbonate ammonium, ˝ oz., spirit
chloroform, 1 fluid oz., water in proportion, at intervals
of 4 hours.
3. Sulphocarbolate sodium, ˝ oz., bromide potassium, 2
drams, chlorodyne, 6 fluid drams, water in proportion, at
intervals of from 4 to 6 hours.
Fig. 104. Mode of securing ox in passing Probang for either gas or choking.
Fig. 105, The Probang.
When foreign substances or food causes choking, the
use of the probang is necessary, provided the obstructing
body cannot be reached with the hand. The probang
240 THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
should be 6 or 7 feet in length. Its use is illustrated in
Figs. 104. 105. Some animals require to be very securely
fastened, while others may be held by hand.
ENGORGEMENT OF THE OMASUM OR THIRD
Also called fardel-bound and grass staggers, is probably
caused by old fog-grass, straw, dry, harsh, and badly cured
hay, and any coarse herbage or heath. Very bad hay can
only be made slightly available by being mixed with a
large quantity of cut turnips, mangold-wurzel, or grain.
Fig. 106. Impaction of the Omasum.
Symptoms.—Head held low; ears hang; breathing
difficult; tip of tongue protrudes; eyes staring and blood
shot ; sight impaired; grunts and moans; grinds teeth;
head pointed toward abdomen, usually the right side,
on account of pain ; hind legs often moved ; tail lashed ;
rumen often swelled ; staggers, rolls on side and lies there
with rigid limbs; convulsions and death.
Remedy.—In ordinary cases Epsom salt, 16 oz. or
more, clears the way for aloes, the former acting on the
bowels, the latter on the stomach. Oil is useful as an
adjunct. External stimulating for stomach inflammation.
Give injections regularly, and watch animal carefully.
Nitrated drinking water. Sulphate of physostygmine, dis
solved, has been injected both intravenously and hypo-
dermically (in the veins and under the skin) in doses of
˝ to 1˝ grain.
ENGORGEMENT OF THE RUMEN. 241
ENGORGEMENT AND INFLAMMATION OF THE
Which is caused by excessive quantities of food, entails
more suffering than hoven, which is caused mostly by
gas. The disorders are easily distinguished. The swell
ing in hoven resembles an inflated bladder and is reson.
ant on percussion, while the engorged stomach has a soft,
doughy feel and pits on pressure. The swelling is on the
left side in both disorders. The animal is dull; suffers
Fig. 107. The rumen exposed for mechanical removal of contents.
pain; no appetite; constipated, feces being hard and
glazed; pulse small and quick; lies on right side. Ho-
ven usually follows, accompanied by difficult breathing,
moaning, grinding teeth, arching back, protruding muz
Sometimes the paunch is opened and its contents re
moved by hand, but this operation should be performed
by the veterinarian only. (Fig. 107.)
The rumen is sometimes ruptured in both hoven and
THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
engorgement, and is usually soon followed by death. Hair
balls, caused by cattle licking themselves or one another,
and calculous concretions sometimes form in the rumen,
reticulum, and abomasum (the first, second, and fourth of
the four stomachs). See page 111 for ‘ Calculous Con
Fig. 108. Stomachs, &c. a, Rumen or first stomach, b, Reticulum or
second stomach, c, Omasum or third stomach, d, Abomasum or
fourth stomach, e, Esophagus, throat or gullet, f. Pylorus, entrance
Remedy.—Epsom salt, 16 oz., solution of aloes, 4 to
8 fluid oz., powdered ginger, l˝ ňz., aromatic spirit of
ammonia, l˝ fluid oz. Mix with a rather large quantity
of warm gruel. Give slowly and carefully by horn. Fol
low with ˝ pint of linseed oil for the purpose of lubrica
ting the passages, and if there be no relief after 12 hours,
repeat the first dose or give 2 pints of castor oil.
Is caused by errors in diet. Cattle should be supplied
with food which requires remastication, such as hay,
grass, or straw, in addition to any more nutritious foods.
It seems to be caused by unwholesome herbage or acrid
or diseased vegetables, such as decayed turnips. The bow
els are irregular, the coat stares, and parts of the cud,
while being chewed, are dropped. A pailful of thick,
green fluid may be thus lost in two hours. Flesh is lost,
the secretion of milk is checked and then stopped, the
appetite is impaired, capricious, and finally lost. Poverty
of blood and dysentery follow.
Remedy.—Each ox should receive a draft containing
14 oz. Epsom salt, l˝ oz. gentian, and l˝ oz. bicarbon
ate potassium, mixed, and given in a pint of warm lin
seed gruel. For about 6 days 6 drams bicarbonate pot
assium should be mixed morning and evening with the
food of each animal; or, if preferred, the powdered salt
may be mixed with 1˝ oz. of gentian, and given as a
draft in gruel or linseed tea. If possible, take cattle to
a high, dry, and large pasture, or make an entire change
of food at least. Sound roots, good hay, with oil cake,
corn, or bran. It is often well to feed little or no green
food for a time in the case of animals which have been
There is a very severe kind of indigestion of calves
It is caused by too much milk, and may result in in
flammation of the stomach and intestines, causing an ac
rid discharge called ‘ white scour.' The bowels may, how
ever, be constipated.
Give alkalies in rather large doses. If diarrhea comes
on, stimulant tonics and cordials are useful in addition
244 THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
to more active medicines. Diminish the supply of milk
˝, and substitute linseed gruel.
Young calves sometimes suffer on account of the pres
ence of hair balls. These may be broken up by the
movements of the stomach. If distress is great, relieve
with carbonate of ammonium or other stimulant. Trocar
rumen if necessary.
Fig. 109. The spot to trocar the rumen or paunch.
Fig. 110. Trocars.
In calves which have been partially weaned, the abo-
masum may be overloaded with food, the first and third
stomachs not having gained the power of properly pre-
COLICS AND CONSTIPATION. 245
paring the food for it. This may cause constipation. Give
oil, be the bowels loose or confined.
Chronic Indigestion may be caused by irregular feed
ing, bad food, lack of exercise and ventilation, exposure,
internal parasites or foreign bodies, &c As in the horse,
the appetite is depraved; the coat stares; the skin feels
harsh and dry ; the feces are small, hard, dry, and glazed
with mucus; the flanks may be now hollow, now swollen;
flesh is lost; the animal has a tucked up appearance, &c;
besides which rheumatism, tuberculosis, diarrhea, &c, may
Remedy.—Change diet, surrounding conditions, &c,
as in acute indigestion. Give 14 to 16 oz. Epsom salt/
followed by stimulants and tonics. A draft of bicarbon
ate sodium, 2 oz., sulphur, ˝ oz., ginger, ˝ oz., gentian,
1 oz., mixed with pint warm water, twice daily, is some
times beneficial. Puncturing the rumen is sometimes
Is very rare. When severe, all treatment can be avoided,
if the animal is in good condition, by slaughtering for
the market. The actions of the ox are similar to those
of the horse. Many are the same. (See page 103.)
Remedy.—Epsom salt, 16 oz. for full-grown ox. In
jections. If plethoric, bleed. Drafts : 1. Aromatic spirit
ammonia, 2 fluid oz., tincture opium, 2 fluid oz. Repeat
dose in an hour and a half if necessary. 2. Oil turpen
tine, ˝ fluid oz., tincture opium, 1˝ fluid oz., spirit ni
trous ether, 2 fluid oz., every 4 hours.
FLATULENT (GAS) COLIC
Is also rare. The symptoms are not so severe, but are
more continuous than those of simple colic Sometimes
there is distention of the right side of the belly.
Remedy.—Full close of physic. Walk a little. Rub
246 THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
right side. Injections and manual exploration of rectum.
Draft: Solution ammonia, 1 fluid oz., spirit chloroform,
1 fluid oz., water in proportion, every 4 hours.
Like colic, is usually merely a symptom of disease.
There is usually redness of the lining membrane of the
bowels, and also of the eyes and nose. The disorder, as
a rule, is due to some impediment, as strictures or en
gorgements of the stomach or intestines, tumors within
the bowels or pressure on them from the outside, volvu
lus, intussusception, various concretions, &c
Remedy.—Soft food. Give a laxative now and then.
Mild cases often require only injections and bran, linseed,
herbage, and roots. In severe cases, give 14 or 16 oz.
Is due to many causes, and like colic and constipation,
is often only a symptom of disease. It is a serious affec
tion, and to be treated intelligently and effectively the
cause should be ascertained. It may be caused by in
flammation, maldigestion, bad food or water, malignant
catarrh, epizootic pleuro-pneumonia, cattle plague, an-
Fig. 111. Diarrhea.
thrax, tuberculosis, &c There may be severe pain. The
appetite is either diminished or depraved. Urine scanty.
REMEDY FOR DIARRHEA.
If the disease is due to increased activity of the liver,
whereby a large quantity of bile is discharged into the
small intestine, the feces are dark brown in color, watery,
and profuse ; if from bad milk or too much milk, they
are light colored ; if to blood diseases, they are often
black and fetid ; if to disorder of the pancreas, they are
usually light colored.
Remedy.—Powdered opium, 2 drams, catechu, 2 drams,
galls, 2 drams, prepared chalk, 1 oz., water, 1 pint, twice
Catechu, 2 drams, camphor, 2 drams, powdered bael
fruit, 2 oz., powdered opium, 2 drams, mucilage of starch,
1 pint, twice daily.
For calves : Pepsine, 20 grains, diluted hydrochloric
acid, 30 drops, sulphate cinchonine, 7˝ grains, water or
mucilage of starch, 1 pint, 2 or 3 times daily.
Diluted sulphuric acid, 30 drops, tincture catechu, 2
drams, spirit chloroform, 30 drops, water or mucilage of
starch, 1 pint, 3 or 4 times daily.
Salicylate bismuth in 2-dram doses ; also salicylate iron.
Inflammation of the lining membrane of the large in-
Fig. 112. Acute Dysentery.
testines, often follows diarrhea. It may be accompanied
by ulceration. It is either acute or chronic It is due
THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
to bad food, exposure, poison, complication with other
Symptoms.—Abdominal pain ; back arched ; constantly
straining, passing a small quantity of watery material,
tinged with blood ; there may be vesicles in the nostrils ;
coat dry and staring ; mucous membranes pallid ; ears
hang ; eyes dull, glassy, sunken ; rectum protrudes, &c.
Remedy—Ipecac, ˝ oz., powdered opium, 2 drams,
chalk, 2 oz., galls, 2 oz. Mix well and add a pint of
warm water or gruel, and give 3 times daily till cured.
INFLAMMATION OF THE INTESTINES
Is rare. It usually occurs among working oxen. It
may be caused by too much blood, exposure, drinking
cold water when heated, drastic purges, engorgement, &c.
Symptoms.—Pressure on abdomen or loins causes pain ;
feces often dry and in small quantities ; toward the end
there may be a little stream of very offensive liquid ex
crement, which has forced its way through the hard mass
of feces by which the rectum is distended ; acute febrile
symptoms supervene ; stands in one place with muzzle
protruded ; hind limbs become weak ; breathing quick
ened ; occasional tremors ; excessive thirst ; no appetite ;
moans ; grinds teeth ; looks at right flank ; rectum hot.
Other symptoms are like those of colic.
Remedy.—No purging. If plethoric, bleed and repeat
if necessary, taking even a gallon. Stimulate belly with
rugs wrung out of hot water, renewed at intervals, and
by liniments. Give thin, warm gruel with a little linseed
oil. Draft : Tincture opium, 2 oz., tincture aconite (V.
P.), 40 drops, every 3 or 4 hours. Impacted feces may
be removed manually. Anodyne and mucilaginous injec
tions may be very advantageous. Assuage thirst with
V. P. means Veterinary Pharmacopeia (Gresswell's).
A RARE BUT SERIOUS DISEASE.
INFLAMMATION OF THE PERITONEUM
Is a rare but serious disease. The peritoneum invests
the intestines, stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, &c. The
symptoms resemble those of the same disease in the horse,
namely : At first stands in a very dejected manner ; re
peated fits of trembling or shivering, as from cold, fol
lowed by a hot stage, throughout which the tremors par
ticularly affect the hind legs and flanks ; rumination sus
pended and appetite lost ; ears, horns, and extremities
cold ; bowels acutely constipated, in some cases giving
way to diarrhea, which may be profuse and watery or
even bloody ; abdomen swollen, tense, and tender near
the originally injured or diseased part ; urine deficient
and highly colored ; pulse hard, frequent, wiry ; nostrils
dilated ; respiration labored, quick, catching, but motion
confined to chest, abdomen being fixed ; looks at flank,
crouches, paws, moans, grinds teeth ; pulse has become
softer, weaker, smaller, while breathing is slower and less
painful and labored ; membranes pale ; eyes sunken ; ox
stands crouching, with feet close together ; coldness of
extremities, &c, increases ; temperature suddenly declines
from 104 or 105° F. to 97 or 95° F.; abdomen falls and
is fuller and rounder ; less pain and colic; pulse be
comes smaller, more rapid, until it cannot be felt. Death
occurs in 4 or 5 days from the first appearance of the
Remedy.—No purging or bleeding. Draft: Tincture
opium, 2 oz., tincture aconite (V. P.), 40 drops, spirit
chloroform, ˝ oz., water in proportion, every 6 hours.
Injections every 4 hours till bowels are opened. Nutrient
injections for weakness.
THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
DROPSY OF THE ABDOMEN (ASCITES),
Is caused by general debility or mechanical impediment
to the return of venous blood to the heart, occasioned
perhaps by disease of that organ or by disease of the
liver, and also by the pressure of a tumor on the portal
The disease is not frequent in the adult, but often oc
curs in the fetus. The best plan in some cases is to cut.
by the aid of the concealed knife, through the abdomi
nal walls of the fetus and let the fluid escape. In the
adult the belly is distended, and if one hand be placed
against the abdominal wall, while the opposite side is per
cussed, a wave of fluid may be detected. Dropsical swell
ings appear on the belly and under the chest. The breath
ing is thoracic (chest or thorax), and the animal gradu
ally loses blood. The disease is hard to cure.
Remedy.—Nitrate potassium, 2 drams, bicarbonate pot
assium, 4 drams, oil juniper, 1 dram, spirit nitrous ether,
1 oz., water in proportion. Try to remove the primary
cause of the complaint. Tonics. Trocar between the
navel and the iliac bone if necessary. Insert instrument
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