VET INDEX |
|ANIMAL INDEX - OLD VET TREATMENTS AND REMEDIES.
FARMING INDEX - OLD FARM PRACTICES AND REMEDIES FOR ANIMALS, PLANTS AND FIXING THINGS.
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TEETH, GARGET, ABORTION, ETC.
The eruption or cutting of the permanent or second
set of molar teeth is occasionally a matter of some diffi-
Fig. 132. Teeth of the ox. 1. Upper—a, from below; b, from side. 2.
Lower—a, from above; b, from side.
culty, owing to the unshed crowns of the temporary or
first set of teeth becoming entangled with the new teeth.
THE IMPORTANCE OF DENTISTRY.
This causes irritation and prevents the animal from feed
ing. In some parts of the country such animals are called
“ rotten," from their emaciated condition, and perhaps
from the fetor emanating from the mouth. When cattle
at two years and six months, or about that time, stop
Fig. 133. Incisors of the ox. a, crown, b, root, c, neck, f cutting
margin, g, inner edge. A, superior surface. B, inferior surface.
feeding, lose condition, or drivel from the mouth, the
teeth should be examined, and if the unshed molars are
causing irritation, they should be removed with the for
ceps. Hundreds of young cattle have been sacrificed from
this cause—actually dying of starvation. (Williams.)
Or inflammation of the udder, may occur shortly or
‘ some time after calving. It is often difficult to treat.
The whole udder or one or two only of its four quarters
may be affected ; usually the latter. There is heat, swell
ing, redness, and pain, and sometimes febrile symptoms.
If properly treated, the disease subsides, but severe cases
may end in exudation, suppuration, or abscess. A large
part of the gland may become indurated and suffer a per
manent loss of secreting power. There may be lameness
THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
in one hind leg ; pulse quick and hard ; chewing cud
may be suspended, appetite lost. &c.
The disorder may be caused by blows, scratches, or other
injuries, and perhaps from plethora at the time of calv
ing. Heifers are especially liable to the disorder, and the
heat of summer is said to be an exciting cause.
Remedy.—Bleed and purge if necessary. Foment ud
der with warm water ; apply linseed poultice containing
2 to 4 drams of extract of belladonna. Milk regularly.
Draft : Bicarbonate potassium. 1 oz., tincture aconite. 40
drops, water in proportion; or, nitrate potassium. 1 oz.,
tincture aconite. 40 drops, water in proportion, every 4
hours, and then 3 times daily as long as the temperature
For chronic hardening inject bicarbonate of potassium,
1 dram, water, 1 oz. Rub with acetic liniment. Draft :
Bicarbonate potassium, 1 oz., iodide potassium, 2 drams,
water in proportion, twice daily.
Sore and Obstructed Teats are caused by minute
tumors and milk stones in the canal of the teat. Pass a
silver or other probe. A clean, oiled knitting needle
will answer. Warts about the end of the teats should be
removed by ligature. Sore or chapped teats are best
treated with ointment of turpentine.
Is liable to occur frequently and at almost any period
of pregnancy. It is sometimes epizootic. It has many
causes, such as all kinds of unsanitary conditions, me
chanical injuries, overdriving, innutritious and badly pre
pared food, ergotized grain and poisonous plants, con
sumption, sympathy (the sympathy of a well cow with an
aborted cow), malformations, blood and other diseases,
close in-and-in-breeding, the prolonged use of one bull in
a herd, &c. A cow that has once aborted is liable to
ABORTION AND RETAINED PLACENTA REMEDIES. 291
abort again. Such had better be fattened and killed for
Remedy.—Isolate aborted animals ; burn, disinfect, or
deeply bury fetus and placenta. Disinfect and cleanse
premises. Irrigate uterus, vagina, tail, &c, with an ef
fectual germicide, such as corrosive sublimate, 1 part,
common salt, 40 parts, clean rain water, 4,000 parts ; or,
mercuric iodide and potassium iodide, 1 part each, water,
1,000 parts. Use these injections to prevent abortion in
cows that have been herded with the aborted. Prevent
use of bull with balanitis (inflammation of mucous mem
brane of penis). Gentle laxative ; quiet ; tonics.
RETENTION OF THE PLACENTA (THE AFTER
Often follows abortion, but it also follows an otherwise
natural delivery. It may be caused by weakness or con
traction of the uterus. Decomposition of the placenta
causes blood poisoning and death.
Remedy.—Epsom salt, 16 oz., carbonate ammonium,
4 drams, in 2 pints warm water, repeated next day if
necessary. Traction (or attraction) may be applied by
the medium of the protruding part of the cord, the ef
forts made coinciding with the labor pains ; or the pro
jecting parts may be rolled round two sticks. If this
does not suffice, introduce the hand gently and detach
the placental lobes. After removal, wash uterus with
chlorinated lime. Gentle laxative if necessary and plenty
of good gruel. Brandy, spirit of niter, &c, if necessary.
Inversion of the Bladder is not frequent in cows,
but it is usually fatal. The bladder has the appearance
of a tumor. The end of the canals which convey the
urine from the kidneys to the bladder may be seen on
either side ; also the escaping urine. In the early stage
return is not difficult. If it cannot be returned, slaughter.
292 THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
Inversion of the Vagina usually occurs in the de
bilitated and before birth. Bathe with cold water, re
turn part, and use truss till birth-time. Good food.
Inversion of the Uterus is common. Cleanse of
dung, straw. &c, and then detach the afterbirth. Place
on clean cloth, with a man supporting on each side.
Gentle and increasing pressure on neck of uterus then
apply fist to lower part.
Fig. 134. Truss for Inversion of Uterus (prolapsus uteri).
It may be necessary to cast and place cow on back, the
hind parts being somewhat elevated with straw. After
return, apply a truss. Give opium if required. In some
cases it may be necessary to ligature the neck of the
uterus and cut off the remainder. This operation—am
putation of the uterus—is of somewhat common occur
Dropsy of the Uterus is not uncommon. The cow
looks as if in calf, so distended is the womb with water.
The closed mouth of the uterus may be dilated with the
NATURAL BIRTHS, TWINS, ETC.
Malformation of the Uterus is seen in hermaphro
dite heifers, which are generally sterile.
In a natural birth the fore feet appear first, the head,
resting on the fore legs, next. There are many “false
presentations," besides which the head of the fetus may
be enlarged by water on the brain, or its abdomen may
be enlarged by dropsy. Such cases require surgical skill.
Twins are somewhat frequent. When one has been
removed, look for another. They usually lie in reverse
positions, one being presented in the natural way, the
other with its hind legs first. Twins are usually small,
and are therefore delivered without much difficulty. They
are apt to become fixed together in the genital passages.
In such cases, the state of affairs having been ascertained,
the fore legs of the naturally presented calf are to be
secured with ropes. These being kept tight, the other
calf is forced back into the uterus. The first can then
be removed in the natural way. The second will usually
Obstructions in the Teats are not rare. In milk
ing the animal, they can be felt as knots along the course
of the duct, and the flow will be more or less impeded.
These are masses of curdled milk, small tumors attached
by pedicles to the mucous membrane, or 'lacteal calculi.'
They must be removed, as they tend to produce mammi-
tis (inflammation of the mammary or milk glands). This
is not always an easy matter. When not removed, they
may be returnable to the contiguous sinuses (cavities),
where they will often remain without causing incon
Fig. 135. The ox prepared for casting.
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