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DISEASES OF THE URINARY ORGANS.
The kidney is a very susceptible organ. It is easily
affected by medicine, a fact of great importance to prac
titioners. Sometimes medicines given as purges, instead
of acting on the bowels, apparently, expend their Avhole
force on the kidneys, giving the urine, which is copious,
a dark color. This fact probably accounts for mercury
being so slow in producing salivation.
A case of single kidney, but of double size, is recorded.
The urine may Contain excess of water, urea, coloring
matter, and inorganic constituents; also a deficiency of
water and inorganic constituents. There may be altera
tion of other organic compounds, the acid constituents
and extractive matters. It may contain albumen, bile
compounds, sugar, blood, pus, mucus, calculi, &c It is
naturally alkaline in herb-eating and acid in flesh-eating
animals. It differs in composition in various animals, but
some of its constituents are identical.
INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEYS (NEPHRITIS),
Is rare. It is usually caused by medicinal irritation—
turpentine, the resins, cantharides (internal or blister),
croton oil, &c.; stimulating food, cold, water dripping on
the back and loins, injuries, &c. Robertson describes two
forms. He also describes kidney congestion.
Symptoms.—There are many, but the surest are scanty
secretion or total suppression of urine ; frequent attempts
to stale, passing perhaps but a few drops of highly col
ored, unhealthy urine. In the stallion retraction (draw
ing back) of the testicle on the affected side may be pres-
116 THE DISEASES OF THE HORSE.
ent. The symptoms are sometimes indicative of colic
rather than kidney disease.
Fig. 23. The test for Inflammation of the Kidneys.
Remedy.—Bleeding if febrile symptoms acute. Aco
nite in early stages of acute cases. Gentle laxatives re
move waste products and lessen work of kidneys. In sup
pression of urine, digitalis decoction repeatedly applied to
loins. Linseed, diluents, barley water. Promote skin func
tions.’ Alkaline bicarbonates and sulphites as antiseptics.
Anodyne clysters relieve reflexly. Fomentations or fresh
sheep skins to loins. Where chronic irritation remains,
belladonna, opium, camphor as anodynes.
For doses, see pages 13 to 29.
ALBUMINOUS URINE (ALBUMINURIA),
Is rare. It is best determined perhaps by chemical tests.
Tested with bichloride of mercury, it yields a copious
milky precipitate. If it does not coagulate on exposure
to heat, add acetic acid, and then prussiate of potash.
According to Percivall and Williams, the following are
more or less constant
Symptoms.—Standing with distended legs, perhaps all
day, not for staling, but for comfort; or standing “ all
of a heap,” back roached, hind legs advanced. When led,
back and loins stiff; some fever. In severe cases there
are rigors, accelerated respiration, loud puffing at nostrils,
anxious countenance, small, quick pulse, disinclination to
move, pain in turning, and usually constipation.
Fig. 24. Positions assumed when suffering from Albuminous Urine.
Remedy.—When it arises from other than kidney dis
ease, it will cease when the cause is removed. When de
pending on kidney disease, the treatment is only palliative.
Aid kidneys by keeping bowels relaxed with good food;
keep skin warm; avoid cold; tonics or mineral acids;
light work. (Williams.) For list of tonics, see page 37.
BLOOD IN THE URINE (HÆMATURIA),
May appear as bright fluid blood, mixed with the urine,
or it may contain a brown or dark colored deposit—blood
corpuscles, existing in entirety or undergoing a change.
When due to the bladder, it usually follows staling; when
THE DISEASES OF THE HORSE.
from the urethra, it both precedes and succeeds it. It
may be caused by external as well as internal injury, dis
ease, strains, overwork. &c.
Remedy.—Oleaginous laxatives ; sulphuric acid ; iron
salts ; lead acetate internally. Ergotin and belladonna
hypodermically. Fresh sheep skins to loins ; spinal hot
water bag. For doses, see pages 13 to 29.
URINARY STONES (CALCULI),
Are called ‘ renal’ when in the kidney; ‘ uretal ’ when
in the tube leading from the kidney to the bladder;
' cystic ’ or ‘ vesical ’ when in the bladder; ' urethral’
when in the tube leading from the bladder outward.
Kidney stones usually lodge in the pelvis (cavity) of
the kidney, but the funnels or canals are also sometimes
filled with them. Like other calculi they differ in size,
conformation, and consistence. Some weigh 25 ounces.
Uretal stones are rare. They may be felt per rectum,
and may be cut out.
Bladder stones are somewhat common. There are more
or less distinct symptoms of their presence, but the best
way to decide whether they exist or not is to feel per rec-
tum or vagina, especially when the bladder is empty. The
operation is easy and safe. Mares have been known, in
their agony, to expel their stones.
Urethral stones are somewhat rare. They are usually
as large as a walnut, and hence cannot pass entirely
through the canal. They can be felt per rectum, and
sometimes, when near the external orifice of the penis,
can be touched with the finger.
Remedy.—Dilute mineral acids for horse. Alkalies or
alkaline bicarbonates diminish tendency to urinary depos-
its, common especially among highly fed rams and wethers.
Ammonia benzolate helps resolution of phosphatic depos
its in sheep. Diluents; cooling, laxative foods. Raise
feeding sheep thrice daily and drive them a few hundred
yards, to insure urination. Place sheep on buttocks; the
sandy deposits in the urethra are gradually moved by ma
nipulation. Where the canal is hopelessly blocked, it must
be opened either at the ischial arch or by amputation of
the penis. Lithotomy (cutting for stone) in the horse and
ox and lithotripsy (triturating or powdering) in mare or
cow, the only means of removing large cystic stones.
For doses, see pages 13 to 29.
INFLAMMATION OR CATARRH OF THE BLAD
Is usually caused (1) by foreign bodies, such as calculi
and morbid growths; (2) by irritating medicines—can-
tharides, &c; (3) retention of urine.
Symptoms.—Restlessness; paddling or repeated move-
ing of the hind feet; occasional whisking of tail; fre
quent discharge of urine in small quantities; pain on
examining bladder per rectum ; in severe and longstand
ing cases, where the contractile power of the sphincter is
lessened, there may be continuous dribbling of urine;
sometimes more or less constitutional disturbance and
fever; sometimes subacute or chronic cases, which are
often indicated by pus and other cell structures in the
Remedy.—Oleaginous laxatives, aconite, calomel abate
fever. Bleeding, followed by above sedatives, in early
stages, for acute pain and fever. Belladonna, internally
in clyster, and suppository in vagina, for irritation. Soft
ening anodyne injections; hyoscyamus, opium. Rugs
wrung out of boiling water, or fresh sheep skins to loins.
Mashes, linseed, boiled barley, diluents. Potassium bicar
bonate, or other alkalies internally when urine is acid or
acrid. Benzoic or boric acid, sulphites, borax, sulpho-
carbolates, eucalyptus oil when urine alkaline, fermenting,
or fetid. Syringe female bladder with alkaline solutions
when urine acrid; when fetid, with boro-glycerine cr
THE DISEASES OF THE HORSE.
dilute copper sulphate. Buchu, bearberry, eucalyptus in
chronic vesical catarrh.
For doses, see pages 13 to 29.
Suppression and Retention of Urine.—Suppression
signifies non-secretion of urine ; retention inability to pass
urine. Suppression of urine may result from inflamma
tion of the kidneys, or anything else that prevents the
performance of their functions. Retention of urine may
result from spasm or contraction of the neck of the blad
der, the lodgment of stones, paralysis. &c. (Percivall.)
See ' Nephritis’ and ‘ Cystitis.’
Cysts in the Kidneys are not rare. A fibrous cyst,
as large as a fist, discovered by Percivall, contained eight
ounces of black fluid. The fluid was composed of the
different elements of the blood, particularly the coloring
matter. Usually, however, they contain simply the watery
parts of the blood.
Enlargement of the Kidneys (one or both) is not
unusual. In a recorded case one kidney weighed 24 lbs.,
the other 27. In another case the right kidney “ was
supposed to weigh upward of 112 lbs.” The left was
healthy, though rather larger than natural.
Inversion and Protrusion of the Bladder sometimes
occurs in foaling. If the protruded parts cannot be re
duced and returned, perhaps a ligature may be success
fully used. Send for a veterinarian.
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