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Alkalies are caustic bases, are soluble in water and
alcohol, unite with oils and fats to form soap, neutralize
and change reddened litmus paper to blue, &c. Potash,
soda, ammonia, lime, and magnesia are the chief alkalies.

Alkaloids are usually powerful poisons or active med­
icines. Those chiefly used are morphine, atrophine, quin­
ine, cocaine, pilocarpine, ergotinine, coniine, nicotine, and
sparteine. Alkaloids are salifiable bases, that is, they are
capable of combining with an acid to form a salt. They
are mostly derived from vegetable plants, in which they
are usually the active principle. Alkaloid means a kind
or form of alkali.

Alteratives influence the amount and kind of tissue
change going on in different organs and cells. Sodium
chloride, sulphate, phosphate, acetate, and biborate ; pot­
assium nitrate, ammonium chloride and carbonate, and
probably all salts excreted by the kidneys, increase tissue
change and the quantity of urea excreted. The urea is
a component part of the urine.

Anesthetics (Anaesthetics) diminish and absorb sen­
sation. Chloroform, ether, chloral hydrate, nitrous oxide,
chloride of olefiant gas, light coal-tar naphtha, &c. Used
locally (that is, for certain spots)—cocaine, carbolic acid,
and iodoform.

Anaphrodisiacs diminish sexual passion. Ice or cold
water locally ; potassium iodide and bromide ; purgatives,
digitalis, and camphor ; a spare diet and steady work.

Anhydrotics check perspiration and skin secretion.
Belladonna and atrophine, picotoxine, nux vomica, salts
of zinc, &c.



Anodynes relieve pain. Opium, morphine, anesthetics
in small doses, belladonna, atrophihe, chloral, conium,
hyoscyamus, stramonium, &c.

Antacids obviate acidity of the stomach. They consist
of the alkalies, namely, potash, soda, ammonia ; the alka­
line earths, lime and magnesia, and their carbonates and
bicarbonates, &c. Horses instinctively lick lime-washed
walls or eat earth when suffering from acidity of the

Anthelmintics kill or expel intestinal worms. For
bots—green food ; a combination of aloes, asafetida, tur­
pentine, and ether. For tapeworms—areca-nut, filixmas,
kamala, kousso, pomegranate, turpentine, and chloroform.
For round worms—santonin, santonica (wormseed plant).
For thread worms—turpentine and essential oils, tannin
and tannin-containing substances ; santonin, santonica ;
with injections of common salt, iron chloride, or lime-
water. For fluke worms—maintain strength by good feed­
ing; common salt and soluble iron salts exert general
tonic effects and limited vermicide action ; a physic has­
tens expulsion of the flukes.

Antiperiodics mitigate the severity or prevent the
recurrence of certain diseases. Cinchona, quinine, and
arsenic are reliable antiperiodics.

Antiphlogistics.—See ‘ Antipyretics.’

Antipyretics lower the temperature of the body in
fever. They embrace cinchona alkaloids, benzoic, car­
bolic, and salicylic acids, salicylicates, salicin, camphor,
eucalyptol, thymol and other essential oils, alcohol, anti-
monial salts, aconite, digitalis, veratrine, nitrous ether,
antipyrin, opium, ipecac, cold bath, wet pack, cold drinks,
ice to surface, &c.

Antiseptics arrest putrefaction. Carbolic, nitric, hy­
drochloric, sulphuric, salicylic, and boric acids, corrosive
sublimate, iodine, creosote, zinc and iron chlorides, iodo-
form, ethereal oils, alcohol, eucalyptus, &c. Antiseptics

32                      MEDICINES AND THEIR CLASSES.

may yet be discovered capable of checking the multipli­
cation of septic germs in the blood and tissues, as they
now do in a wound, or external to the body. (Dun.)

Antispasmodics prevent or remove spasms. Sulphuric
ether, valerian, asafetida, musk, castor and aromatic oils,
alkaline bromides, salts of silver, zinc, and copper.

Antizymotics not only arrest fermentation, but they
destroy the several classes of ferments. Corrosive subli-
mate, chlorine, iodine, bromine ; sulphurous, carbolic,
boric, salicylic, and benzoic acids; many metallic solu­
tions ; temperatures above 200° F.

Aperients.—See Purgatives.’

Aphrodisiacs increase sexual appetite. When there is
lack of vigor, the most rational treatment consists in the
administration of tonics—iron, strychnine, &c. Canthar-
ides is unsafe.

Astringents contract the tissues with which they come
in contact and diminish their secretions. Alum, lime,
chalk, salts of the heavier metals, acids, and alcohol, with
tannic acid and such tannin-containing substances as oak
bark and catechu.

Blisters.—Cantharides, glacial acetic acid, turpentine,
strong ammonia, and boiling water. See ‘ Counter-irrita­

Carminatives allay pain by causing the expulsion of
flatus (gases) from the stomach and intestines. They are
closely allied to antispasmodics. Chief among them are
the various aromatic oils, with ginger, mustard, peppers,
alcohol, ethers, and chloroform. Carbonic acid gas is
neutralized by ammonia preparations ; sulphurated and
carbureted hydrogen gases by solutions of chlorine or
lime chloride.

Cataplasms.—See ‘ Poultices.’

Cathartics.—See Purgatives.’

Caustics burn and disorganize the parts to which they
are applied, causing sloughing. The most active are called

MEDICINES AND THEIR CLASSES.                    33

escharotics ; they are also called corrosives. They consist
of the concentrated mineral acids and alkalies, glacial
acetic acid, carbolic acid, chromic acid, antimony chloride,
arsenic, bromine, and the soluble salts of the heavy metals.

Charges.See Plasters.’

Cholagogues.See Purgatives.’

Counter-Irritation is irritation of a healthy part to
counteract irritation or disease of a contiguous part. Mus­
tard, croton oil, tartar emetic, iodine, mercurial ointment,
mercuric iodide, vinegar of cantharides, and water (nearly

Demulcents soothe, soften, and ensheathe parts ; they
act mechanically chiefly and resemble emollients. Gums,
mucilage, linseed, cotton­wool and collodion, fullers’ earth,
starch, molasses, gelatin, albumin, fats, oils, glycerine,
and milk.

Deodorizers destroy smells. Chlorine, chloride of lime,
carbolic, sulphurous, and cresylic acids, iodine dissolved
in amyl-hydride, Condy’s fluid, McDougall’s powder, &c.

Diaphoretics excite perspiration. They are uncertain
as a class. They are all indirect agents ; some sedative,
others excitant, and cannot therefore be used indiscrimi­
nately in disease. Ammonia acetate solution, sweet spirit
of niter, sulphuric ether, diluted spirits, jaborandi, ipecac,
or Dover’s powder, warm or vapor baths—100° to 120° F.

Diluents.All watery drinks are diluents.

Disinfectants destroy the specific poisons of communi­
cable diseases. Chlorine, chlorinated lime, carbolic acid,
sulphurous acid, corrosive sublimate solutions, iodine, &c.

Diuretics act on the kidneys and increase their secre­
tions. Digitalis ; alcohol, strophanthus, squill, strychnine,
caffeine, broom, turpentine, juniper, copaiba, cantharides,
nitrites, liquor potassæ, potassium acetate, &c. Ball for
horse— ½ oz. each of niter, resin, and soft soap, daily for
4 or 5 days. If it is desirable to increase the solid as
well as the watery parts of the urine, add 10 or 15 grains



of powdered digitalis. The same ingredients, dissolved in
a pint of water, make a diuretic drink for the cow.

Ecbolics expel the contents of the uterus; they cause
abortion or hasten birth. Ergot, hydrastis, savin, and
thuja. Ergot is the only one is general use.

Emetics cause vomiting. Luke warm water, bitter in­
fusions, solutions of salt, mustard, alum, ammonium car­
bonate, copper and zinc sulphates ; tartar emetic, ipecac,
emetine, apomorphine, senega, squill.

Emollients soften, soothe, and relax parts. They re­
semble ‘ demulcents (which see), and include many of
the medicines specified in that class. Warmth or moder­
ate heat, generated by fomentations, poultices, lint, flan­
nel, or woolen cloth, and retained by a waterproof cover­
ing, are a species of emollient. Fats, oils, lanolin, vaselin,
paraffin, with soap and other liniments, are emollients.

Emulsions are soft, smooth, milk-like mixtures of oil
or resin, suspended in gum, soap, alkali, or white of egg.

Expectorants aid in removing secretions from the air
passages. Those of a depressant type are such as the an-
timonials, alkalies in small doses, ipecac, lobelia, jabo-
randi, apomorphine, and potassium iodide. The stimula­
ting are such as the acids, ammonium salts, nux vomica,
senega, squill, balsams, terebinth mates, sulphur, sulphur
oils, and saccharines (sweets).

Febrifuges.—See Antipyretics.’

Fomentations are topical baths. They usually consist
of water alone, but vinegar, salines, &c., are sometimes
added. They are usually made with a sponge or soft rags,
tow, or lint. The temperature ranges from 100°, 110°,
120° F., and upward.

Germicides destroy germs or bacteria. Sodium hydro-
fluosilicate (recently discovered) is a cheap and safe ger­
micide. (Dun.) Corrosive sublimate, chlorine, chlorina­
ted lime, bromine, iodine, quinine, beberine, &c., are all
good germicides, especially corrosive sublimate.



Infusions are made by digesting vegetable substances
or drugs in hot water (usually 1 part of drugs to 20 of
water) 15 minutes to 2 hours. Avoid boiling.

Lotions (washes) are watery solutions for external use,
especially in chronic skin diseases. Strong lotions may be
used as counter-irritants. Lotions for the eye are usually
called collyria.

Narcotics are soothers as well as stupefiers. Opium,
morphine, ether, chloroform, aconite, belladonna, digitalis,
hyoscyamus, stramonium, conium, &c.

Plasters usually contain lead oxide, conjoined with
resin, wax, soap, fats, tar, or pitch, spread on calico,
linen, or leather.

Poultices are made of linseed meal, bran, or oatmeal,
stirred into boiling water until the fitting consistence is
reached ; or of carrots or turnips, either steamed or boiled.
Bread and starch make mild porous poultices for ab­
scesses ; spent hops for light poultices. Apply in flannel
bag or folded flannel.

Purgatives evacuate the bowels. They are usually clas­
sified as follows : Laxatives or Aperients—small doses of
oil, magnesia, sulphur and molasses, with fruit, roots, and
green vegetable food. Simple Purgatives—full doses of
oils, aloes, and the various species of rhamnus. Drastic
Purgatives—croton oil, colocynth, elaterium, gamboge, and
podophyllin. Hydragogues—elaterium, gamboge, croton
oil, &c., with large doses of the more active salines.
Cholagogues—calomel and other mercurial preparations,
aloes, jalap, podophyllin, and euonymin, for bile. Salines
—(See Salines,’ page 36.) Purgatives and other irritants
should be used cautiously in the case of the horse. If
possible, the animal should be restricted to mash diet or
green food for 24 hours previous to taking a purgative.

Refrigerants allay heat and thirst. Water, particles
of ice, acidulated drinks, mild mucilaginous fluids, allay
thirst and stimulate the secretion of saliva.

36                     MEDICINES AND THEIR CLASSES.

Rubefacients cause slight redness of the skin and con­
gestion. Ammonia solutions, mustard, iodine, mild prep­
arations of cantharides, arnica, alcohol, ether, chloroform
(if not allowed to evaporate), turpentine and many other
volatile oils, with smart friction and moderate heat, such
as that from a smoothing iron. The smoothing iron is
good for rheumatism and enlarged joints.

Salines contain a salt or have the properties of a salt.
They consist of the neutral salts of the alkalies and alka­
line earths, such as magnesium sulphate and citrate, sul­
phate of soda, potassium tartrate and bitartrate, &c. As
before said, magnesium sulphate,’ is simply Epsom salt
(commonly called salts’ ).

Sedatives lessen the force and frequency of the hearth’s
action. Aconite, veratrum viridi, and the antimonials ;
also digitalis, lead acetate, opium, ergot, and topical ap­

Sialagogues increase the secretion of saliva. Acids,
alkalies, ethers, mustard, ginger ; jaborandi, calabar bean,
and their alkaloids ; mercury, tobacco, iodide of potassi­
um, &c.

Soporifics or Hypnotics induce sleep. Opium, mor­
phine, alcohol hydrate, croton-chloral, hyoscyamus, can-
nabis, bromides, &c.

Stimulants.—Ammonium and its carbonate, alcoholic
solutions, capsicum, nux vomica, ether, chloroform, oil of
turpentine and other volatile oils, aromatic oils, camphor,
opium and cocaine in small doses, &c.

Styptics are astringents specially used to arrest effusion
of blood from injured surfaces or vessels. They are (1)
matico, tow, lint, or pressure ; (2) most astringents and
caustics (which see) ; (3) ergot, digitalis, ether spray, lead
acetate, ice, &c.

Sudorifics.—See ‘ Diaphoretics.’

Suppurants inflame the deep seated skin tissues and
bring pus. Euphorbium, croton oil, tartar emetic, mer-

MEDICINES AND THEIR CLASSES.                      37

cury biniodide ointment ; also cantharides, mustard and
other active blisters, when repeatedly applied to the same

Tonics impart strength. Sulphuric acid, nitric acid,
iron, iron and copper sulphates, arsenic, cinchona, quinine,
quassia, cocaine, cod-liver oil, gentian, silver nitrate, zinc
oxide, buchu, &c. Heart Tonics—digitalis and its alka­
loids, casca (doom) and its active principle, erythrophlœin,
strophanthus hispid us, squill, caffeine, nux vomica, and

Vermicides.—See ‘ Anthelmintics,’

Vermifuges.—See ‘ Anthelmintics.’

Vesicants.—See ‘ Blisters.’

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