VET INDEX |
|ANIMAL INDEX - OLD VET TREATMENTS AND REMEDIES.
FARMING INDEX - OLD FARM PRACTICES AND REMEDIES FOR ANIMALS, PLANTS AND FIXING THINGS.
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THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
Also called lung disease, pulmonary murrain, zymotic
or epizootic pleuro-pneumonia, &c, is an incurable febrile
disease. Gresswell says it is believed to be generated by
and due to a definite micrococcus (mite). It may be acute,
subacute, or chronic.
Symptoms.—Elevation of temperature or a slight cough
is usually the first sign. The temperature will range from
100 to 107°. Shiverings ; hair stands wrong way ; slight
loss of appetite ; breathing difficult and laborious ; nos
trils dilated ; flanks heave ; mouth hot ; muzzle dry ; gums
pale, lilac color ; walls of chest, rib spaces, and back from
withers to loins more or less sensitive to pressure ; appe
tite worse ; milk diminishes ; emaciation begins ; bowels
irregular ; watery or sticky discharge from nostrils ; ab
normal sounds in bronchial tubesand mucous rattle over
lungs ; cough worse ; back arched and head and neck ex
tended when coughing.
In what is called the second stage, these symptoms are
intensified and others appear. Death sometimes occurs in
the first stage.
Remedy.—Slaughter and general and thorough disin
fection of premises. Vaccination and inoculation should
be left to the veterinarian.
224 THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
‘ Sporadic Pleuro-Pneumonia ' is described by Gresswell.
He says it is “ amenable to judicious treatment.”
FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE,
Also called eczema contagiosa, eczema epizootica, ‘ epi
zootic aphtha, aphthous fever, murrain, epidemic, &c, is
a highly contagious and infectious febrile disease, associ
ated with a vesicular eruption in the mouth, between
the pedal digits, and around the coronets. In some cases
the mouth only is affected ; in others the feet only. In
milk cows the mammary glands and lactiferous ducts are
sometimes affected. When this is the case, the milk is
unfit for use for either man or beast, for it may cause
eruptions in the mouth, larynx, pharynx, and alimentary
canal. Sheep, goats, swine, dogs, poultry, and even hu
man beings are liable to the disease.
Dr. Klein says the disease is due to micrococci (mites).
Mild cases require little treatment, as the disease runs a
definite course and ends in recovery in about a week.
Remedy.—Salicylate sodium, 3 drams, spirit nitrous
ether, 1 fluid oz., water, 7 oz., twice daily.
Sulphite sodium, 3 drams, water 8 oz., 2 or 3 times
Sulphite sodium, 3 drams, aniseeds, 1 oz., fenugreek,
1 oz., in food 3 times daily, when other medicines are
Gargles : 1. Boric acid, 1 part, glycerine, 5 fluid parts,
water, 11 parts, several times daily. 2. Acid solution ni
trate mercury, 4 drops, water, 1 oz., several times daily.
3. Permanganate potassium, 3 to 4 grains, water, 1 oz.,
2 or 3 times daily
Ointments for feet and teats : 1. Boric acid, 1 part,
vaselin, 3 parts, lard, 3 parts. 2. Carbolic acid, 1 part,
lard or vaselin, 30 parts. 3. Iodoform, 20 grains, oil
eucalyptus, 20 drops, carbolic acid, 20 drops, lard or vas-
elin, l½ oz. Latter, especially good for sores and ulcers.
TUBERCULAR CONSUMPTION (TUBERCU
Which is so prevalent among cattle, is doubtless caused
by a bacillus (atmospheric mite). It may be found, says
Gresswell, that bovine tuberculosis can be stamped out as
cattle plague, foot and mouth disease, sheep scab, pleuro-
pneumonia, and rabies can. There are indications that
protective inoculation with tubercular matter obtained
from fowl which have died of the disease will throw light
on a method of prevention.
SymDtoms.—In well developed cases the ox is emaci
ated ; sluggish movements ; dull look ; eyes sunken ; skin
dry and adheres to ribs ; hair lacks healthy luster and is
often damp ; slight exertion causes sweating, laborious
breathing, and great distress ; great weakness, sometimes
even lowering the head to the ground for relief ; mem
branes of mouth and other orifices pale yellow ; appetite
capricious and less than in health ; dejections (excrements)
bad ; stomach may be more or less distended with gas ;
constipation and diarrhea may alternate ; coughs up a
viscid, usually inodorous, but sometimes offensive matter,
which may contain yellowish cheesy flakes, &c.
Remedy.—Well developed cases are incurable. In mild
attacks fatten and slaughter. In milk cows, stop milk
ing ; give fattening food, such as oil cake and good hay ;
avoid grasses and roots. If there are any ulcerating scrof
ulous glands, dress with carbolic acid and chalk or some
CARBUNCULAR FEVER (ANTHRAX),
Also called Texas fever, splenic fever, trembles, char-
bon, blain, &c, is supposed to be the disease referred to
in Exodus, chapter ix, as the “ boil which came forth as
blains upon man and beast throughout all Egypt.” (Rob
226 THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
The disease is contagious, very rapid in its course, and
is caused by the vegetable organism bacillus anthracis. It
is both enzootic and epizootic, occurring whenever and
wherever conditions favor the growth of the germs, one
of which is rainy weather followed by heat.
Fig. 97. Gloss-Anthrax or Blain. early stage.
Symptoms.—Stops feeding and chewing cud suddenly ;
shivers; moves stiffly and unsteadily; limbs rigid ; soon
falls and is unable to move; may, however, stand for a
while, back curved. The spleen is usually especially af
fected, but sometimes it is the bowels; severe convulsions
are not uncommon ; tenacious mucus flows from mouth ;
tongue becomes of a darker hue ; belly distended; passes
liquid and blood-stained excreta and sometimes a large
quantity of dark blood; blood sometimes flows from nos
trils; white of eyes become dark red ; eyes sink in orbit;
tears flow over face, &c.
Death may follow in a few minutes, hours, or a day.
Recovery is rare.
Remedy.—Sulphite sodium, 3 drams, salicylate sodium,
3 drams, tincture aconite (B. P.), 40 drops, water a suf
ficient quantity, every 4 hours.
Liquified carbolic acid, 30 drops, gentian, 2 oz., ani
seed, 2 oz., in pint of water every 4 hours.
GENERAL DISEASES. 227
Mix 12 oz. (ounces) each of carbolic acid and sodium
bicarbonate with 4 fluid oz. of glycerine; give 2 table-
spoonfuls of the mixture in a quart of water 3 times daily.
The latter mixture is much used in America.
Kill all hopelessly sick cattle and bury the carcasses 6
feet deep, spreading quick lime over them. Disinfect
premises and everything used in treating the sick. Sep
arate sick from well.
BLACKLEG OR BLACK QUARTER,
Also called symptomatic anthrax, quarter ill, inflamma
tory fever, carbuncular erysipelas, emphysema infectuo-
sum, speed, Chabert's disease, &c, is a very fatal and in
fectious disease. It is caused by a rod-like germ very
similar-to the 'bacillus anthracis.'
The disease is peculiar to calves and cattle under two
years of age. Setoning the dewlap (fold of skin on
throat), first dressing the seton with black oil, is said to
be an almost certain preventive. Recovery from this dis
ease is rare. Death usually occurs in two or three days
from blood poisoning.
Fig. 98. Three-jointed, sharp Seton Needle.
Symptoms.—Dull; listless; lame in one or two limbs,
either hind or fore ; appetite fails; stops chewing cud;
thirst; head protruded; white of eye bloodshot; mouth
hot; moans ; if forced to move, staggers and drops down;
constipated ; then feces become soft and tinged with blood ;
skin dry and rough; harsh and staring coat; urine, at
228 THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
first high colored, becomes deeply blood stained ; loins,
back, ribs tender; painful swellings at fetlock, knee
joint, hock joint, stifle, elbow, or shoulder, which may
soon mortify, &c
Remedy.—Gentle laxative, then sulphite sodium, 1
dram, salicylate sodium, 1 dram, water a sufficient quan
tity, every 6 hours.
Incise and dress tumors, if large, with carbolic acid, 1
part, water, 25. Good hay, mashes, linseed, or oatmeal
gruel. Drain wet pastures.
Is a contagious febrile disease, and is probably caused
by a micrococcus. It is peculiar to Asia.
Known in the past as cancerous, scrofulous, or schirrous
tongue, in Germany as wooden tongue and throat boil, is
characterized by tumors of various size and shape on the
tongue, jaw, tooth sockets, bones, and soft tissues of the
head, from which parts it may spread. It is described as
" a new and infectious disease of animals and man.” In
cattle it is due to a fungus called ‘ actinomyces ' (ray
fungus). Moldy straw, barley, or chaff, especially if the
mouth be sore or lacerated, is liable to cause the disease.
Moldy foods usually contain vegetable parasites. As in
foot and mouth disease, an ox will slaver and champ and
chew its hay, but will usually eject it. But it will eat
mashes and linseed gruel.
Remedy.—Incise the tumors and then apply the fol
lowing mixture : Iodine, 1 part, carbolic acid, 4 fluid parts,
glycerine, 4 fluid parts. Tincture of iodine, plain or di
luted with alcohol (methylated or not), will answer.
Gargle : Acid solution nitrate mercury, 8 drops, water,
1 oz. Will do for wash also after incision of tumors.
Tonics if necessary. Soft, nutritious food.
RABIES OR HYDROPHOBIA.
(See page 50.)
COW-POX VARIOLA VACCINÆ),
Affects the udder and teats of cows chiefly. The rash
consists of small, pale red, hard pustules, varying in size
from a pea to a horse-bean. The pustules are converted
into vesicles containing a viscid, yellow fluid. These
gradually increase in size, until in about eight and a half
days they are about five-eighths of an inch in diameter.
In the center they have a light blue tint, but toward the
margin they are reddish blue or yellow. Their contents
now become purulent. The center is usually depressed,
and a crust begins to form there, gradually extending to
the periphery. The border is hard, swollen, and painful
and a red areola forms, together with much thickening
under the skin.
About the fourteenth day a scab, which is thick, dark,
adherent, and shining, is formed, and about the fifteenth
day it becomes detatched, having a depressed scar, which
is at first bluish red, but gradually turns pale, and per
sists for a long time.
The febrile symptoms are very slight and usually un
important. The infection is not dangerous. A partial
loss of appetite, an abstention from chewing the cud,
trifling constipation, diminution, and deterioration of the
milk are observable. The udder is swollen, especially near
the teats, and milking causes pain. There may be more
than one eruption of pustules.
The disease usually lasts about seventeen and a half
days, but may be protracted to about five weeks, during
which time the milk is unfit for use.
Remedy.—Give a laxative and draw off milk with a
siphon. Draft: Solution acetate ammonium, 4 fluid oz.,
tincture aconite (V. P.), 40 drops, water a sufficient quan
tity, 3 times daily.
230 THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
Or a disease resembling it, sometimes affects cattle.
Symptoms.—Throat sore and swollen; coughing spells;
flow of saliva from mouth and mucus from nostrils; ac
celerated breathing, causing a crowing sound during in
spiration; may be spasms of larynx, especially if animal
is excited; great debility finally supervenes; pulse, at first
quick, grows weaker and weaker as the disease progresses;
cough worse; about the third day lymph-casts of parts of
the air tubes, or flakes of lymph at least, are ejected.
Fig. 99. Steaming apparatus for Diphtheria, Catarrh, Bronchitis, &c. See
Fig. 100 an equally good and simpler method.
Remedy.—Careful nursing. Liquid food. Steam air
passages with an antiseptic inhalation, such as about a
teaspoonful of oil of eucalyptus to about a gallon of boil
ing water; a free supply of water containing about a
dram of chlorate of potassium to half bucket water. Good
air. Salicylic acid, 1 dram, is useful; also same quantity
Puncture throat if there is danger of suffocation. Ton
ics if necessary.
A very fatal disease, causing death in from three to
seven days, is said to be non-contagious and to result
from inflammation induced by exposure to cold. (See
'Catarrh,' the simple form, page, 70.)
Symptoms.—Shivering fits; dull look; membranes
bluish red; eyes close; eyelids swell; tears flow over
cheeks; painful, frequent cough ; feeble pulse; constipa
tion followed by diarrhea; profuse discharges from nos
trils and mouth ; sometimes the horns drop off.
Remedy.—Remove to warm sheds. Tincture perchlo-
ride of iron, 1 fluid oz., salicine, 1 dram, simple sirup, 4
fluid oz., water a sufficient quantity, 3 times daily.
Gargle : Acid solution nitrate mercury, 6 drops, water,
1 oz.; or, permanganate potassium, 3 to 4 grains, water,
Fig. 100. Steam-bag for Catarrh.
Purge if necessary. Inhale steam from boiling water,
in which put a small portion of oil of eucalyptus or car
bolic acid, as above for diphtheria. Tonics and good food
232 THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
Like tetanus (lock-jaw), is practically the same in the
ox as in the horse. (See page 63.)
Remedy.—Tincture aconite (V. P.), 30 drops, salicyl-
ate sodium, 4 drams, bicarbonate potassium, 1 oz., water
in proportion, every 6 hours. Or, tincture colchicum, ½
Fig. 101. Knee joint after Chronic Rheumatism.
oz., tincture aconite (V. P.), 30 drops, bicarbonate pot
assium, 1 oz., water in proportion, every 6 hours.
Liniment: Alcohol, 1 pint, ammonia, ½ oz., oil orga-
num, ½ oz., oil sassafras, ½ oz., tincture capsicum, ½ oz.,
tincture opium, ½ oz., spirit turpentine, ½ oz., camphor,
GENERAL DISEASES. 233
RICKETS OR RACHITIS (Bone Softening),
When not hereditary, is caused by a lack of health-
giving food. It is peculiar to young animals. Give 1½
to 3 drams phosphate of lime once a day, or cod liver
oil, 4 oz., lime water, 2 oz., once a day. Nutritious diet
and pure air. (See page 69.)
Fig. 102. Rickets in humerus of dog.
BONE BRITTLENESS (FRAGILITAS OSSIUM),
Is rare except in districts where the water and soil are
lacking in lime salts and phosphates. The general health
is affected and fractures are common.
Remedy.—Change pasture and water and feed on nu
tritious, phosphatic foods. The salts of iron are valuable
tonics. Sulphate or carbonate of iron is useful,, but the
THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
citrate of iron and ammonium, in 2-dram doses, twice a
day, is even better. Vegetable tonics and the phosphate
of calcium are valuable. Soft water seems to be bad for
cows. (See ‘ Osteoporosis,' page 68.
ANÆMIA (Lack of Blood),
Is caused by underfeeding or unhealthy food. Prevent
by good feeding, and if medicine is necessary, give any
of the following :
Powdered gentian, 1½ oz., powdered ginger, ½ oz., gran
ulated sulphate of iron, 2 drams, powdered nux vomica,
40 grains, powdered capsicum, ½ dram, in a pint of water,
gruel, or ale, twice daily.
Powdered gentian, 1 oz., powdered ginger, ½ oz., car
bonate ammonium, ½ oz., carbonate iron, 2 drams, in a
pint of warm water, gruel, or ale, twice daily.
Solution hydrochlorate strychnine, 2 drams, tincture cap
sicum, 4 drams, tincture perchloride iron, 1 oz., in pint
of warm water or gruel, once daily.
Though rare, is practically the same in the ox as in
the horse. (See page 63.) The remedies should be the
same as for anæmia (above), giving a laxative first if nec
Is not as common in the ox as in the horse. If the
jaws are not too firmly locked, give bromide potassium, 4
drams, anise fruit, 4 drams, in warm water or gruel, thrice
daily. (See page 53.)
Is enlargement of the thyroid gland, and is caused by
water obtained from magnesian limestone. It may be he
reditary. Change water, or use rain water or water acted
on by carbonate of sodium. It is more common in sheep
than cattle. (See page 78.)
GENERAL DISEASES. 235
Is a specific, contagious, and infectious disease, com
municable perhaps even to man by means of the milk
and inoculation. It is peculiar to recently calved cows.
The disease lasts from five weeks to even three months.
It is caused by a micrococcus.
Symptoms.—Short fever ; quick breathing ; hacking
cough ; sore throat in severe cases ; discharges from nos
trils and eyes ; eruption on skin around eyes ; also hind
quarters ; vesicles on teats and udder ; teats double in
size ; vesicles, at first the size of a pea, enlarge to half-
inch ulcers, with reddish brown scabs ; scabs may remain
25 days or longer ; watery fluid exudes from under scab ;
ulcers leave a whitish, flat, indistinct scar, &c.
Remedy.—Solution acetate ammonium, 4 fluid ounces ;
spirit nitrous ether, 1 fluid oz., bicarbonate potassium, ½J
oz., water, 3½ oz., 3 times a day. Draw off milk with
siphon. Feed calf by hand.
PURPLE FEVER (PURPURA HÆMORRHAGICA),
Is a specific, eruptive blood fever, of an intermittent
type, in which the skin, mucous membranes, connective
tissue of the lungs and kidneys and coats of the intesti
nal walls are mainly affected. It seems to result from
exposure or foul air, and often follows a disease like
catarrhal fever. It runs its course in about a week, and,
like anthrax, which it resembles, is often fatal. It is
peculiar to calves rather than adults. (See page 47.)
Symptoms.—Pain and slight swellings in one or more
limbs ; may be purple or dark red spots in nostrils and
pimples on skin ; blood seems to be thinner than usual ;
it or red serum, or both, exudes, especially on the mucous
and serous membranes ; temperature changeable, but may
suddenly reach 106° F, or more ; hot and rather circum
scribed swellings appear on various parts of the body.
THE DISEASES OF CATTLE.
from which, and also from, the nostrils, a reddish fluid
flows ; these swellings interfere somewhat with breathing
and swallowing ; heart weak and fluttering ; pulse small
Remedy.—Nutritious, digestible food. Stimulants.
Drafts: 1. Quinetum (mixed alkaloids from cinchona
bark), 1 dram, tincture perchloride iron, 1 fluid oz., oil
turpentine, ½ fluid oz., water in proportion, twice daily.
2. Powdered gentian, 1 oz., powdered ginger, ½ oz., car
bonate ammonium, ½ oz., carbonate iron, 2 drams, in
pint warm water, gruel, or ale, twice daily.
Among the poisonous plants and minerals common to
cattle are the following :
Meadow Saffron or Autumn Crocus. Give mucilage of
linseed with 2 ounces spirit ammonia and 4 ounces brandy
every 4 hours.
Aconite. Give 2 ounces spirit ammonia with 4 ounces
of brandy in gruel every 2 hours, repeated as often as
Yew. Give 4 ounces spirit of ammonia with 8 ounces
brandy in quart of mucilage linseed, repeated in 1 hour,
and at intervals of 2, 3, or 4 hours if necessary. Purge
with 8 to 10 drams of aloes, followed by a quart of lin
seed oil after the first draft. Mustard to belly. Open
paunch and remove foliage if necessary.
Woody Nightshade. Treat as for yew. It is often
Ergot is caused by the growth of a fungoid parasite
which infests most of the grasses and cereals. It is most
common in damp situations. Cut the grass when in full
bloom, and thus prevent the formation of ergot. Tannin
and stimulants are antidotes for ergot.
Arsenic. Copious quantities of linseed mucilage and
gruel, Hydrated peroxide of iron, 1 ounce every hour
for 3 or 4 hours ; then every 3 hours for a day or so.
Stimulate with spirit of ammonia and brandy and give
tincture of opium in 2-ounce doses for pain if it is nec
Lead. Epsom salt, 10 ounces, Glauber's salt, 10 ounces,
4 drams diluted sulphuric acid, 20 drops croton oil, in
gruel. Repeat in 8 or 10 hours, giving half the quantity
only. After the first draft, mucilage of linseed or gruel
should be given in large quantities every hour ; and at
each alternate hour 4 drams of diluted sulphuric acid
may be added.
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